, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 267-274
Date: 17 Nov 2012

Relationship between lifestyle and lifestyle-related factors in a rural–urban population of Japan

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access



To clarify the actual state of residents’ lifestyle in a mixed rural–urban area in Japan, and to investigate the relationship between residents’ lifestyle and lifestyle-related factors.


The Japanese version of Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II (HPLP-II), lifestyle-related factors developed through group work with residents of Town A, and demographic variables were used to evaluate 1176 community residents’ lifestyles and associated factors.


Factor analysis revealed that there were 4 factors related to healthy lifestyle. Nonparametric analysis revealed that female and elderly groups showed higher overall HPLP-II score than male and young groups. A significant correlation coefficient was seen between scores of overall HPLP-II and lifestyle-related factors (r = 0.611, p < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that HPLP-II was significantly associated with each lifestyle-related factor, showing a similar order in both gender and age groups. Finally, covariance structure analysis demonstrated that the score of health cognition and regional factors increased the score of HPLP-II, which then increased the score of self-rated health.


The present research clarified the actual state of residents’ lifestyles by age and gender in a mixed rural–urban area in Japan, demonstrating a vector model from health cognition and regional factors to self-rated health, via residents’ lifestyle.