Radiological Physics and Technology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 77–86

Embossed radiography utilizing energy subtraction


    • The 3rd Department of SurgeryToho University School of Medicine
  • Manabu Watanabe
    • The 3rd Department of SurgeryToho University School of Medicine
  • Eiichi Sato
    • Department of PhysicsIwate Medical University
  • Hiroshi Matsukiyo
    • The 3rd Department of SurgeryToho University School of Medicine
  • Toshiyuki Enomoto
    • The 3rd Department of SurgeryToho University School of Medicine
  • Jiro Nagao
    • The 3rd Department of SurgeryToho University School of Medicine
  • Purkhet Abderyim
    • Department of Computer and Information Sciences, Faculty of EngineeringIwate University
  • Katsuo Aizawa
    • Tokyo Medical University
  • Etsuro Tanaka
    • Department of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-scienceTokyo University of Agriculture
  • Hidezo Mori
    • Department of Cardiac PhysiologyNational Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
  • Toshiaki Kawai
    • Electron Tube Division #2Hamamatsu Photonics K.K
  • Shigeru Ehara
    • Department of RadiologySchool of Medicine, Iwate Medical University
  • Shigehiro Sato
    • Department of MicrobiologySchool of Medicine, Iwate Medical University
  • Akira Ogawa
    • Department of NeurosurgerySchool of Medicine, Iwate Medical University
  • Jun Onagawa
    • Department of Electronics, Faculty of EngineeringTohoku Gakuin University

DOI: 10.1007/s12194-008-0048-8

Cite this article as:
Osawa, A., Watanabe, M., Sato, E. et al. Radiol Phys Technol (2009) 2: 77. doi:10.1007/s12194-008-0048-8


Currently, it is difficult to carry out refraction-contrast radiography by using a conventional X-ray generator. Thus, we developed an embossed radiography system utilizing dual-energy subtraction for decreasing the absorption contrast in unnecessary regions, and the contrast resolution of a target region was increased by use of image-shifting subtraction and a linear-contrast system in a flat panel detector (FPD). The X-ray generator had a 100-μm-focus tube. Energy subtraction was performed at tube voltages of 45 and 65 kV, a tube current of 0.50 mA, and an X-ray exposure time of 5.0 s. A 1.0-mm-thick aluminum filter was used for absorbing low-photon-energy bremsstrahlung X-rays. Embossed radiography was achieved with cohesion imaging by use of the FPD with pixel sizes of 48 × 48 μm, and the shifting dimension of an object in the horizontal direction ranged from 100 to 200 μm. At a shifting distance of 100 μm, the spatial resolutions in the horizontal and vertical directions measured with a lead test chart were both 83 μm. In embossed radiography of non-living animals, we obtained high-contrast embossed images of fine bones, gadolinium oxide particles in the kidney, and coronary arteries approximately 100 μm in diameter.


Embossed radiography Digital subtraction Energy subtraction Contrast resolution Polychromatic X-rays

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© Japanese Society of Radiological Technology and Japan Society of Medical Physics 2008