Article

Radiological Physics and Technology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 46-53

First online:

X-ray fluorescence camera for imaging of iodine media in vivo

  • Hiroshi MatsukiyoAffiliated withThe 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine Email author 
  • , Manabu WatanabeAffiliated withThe 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine
  • , Eiichi SatoAffiliated withDepartment of Physics, Iwate Medical University
  • , Akihiro OsawaAffiliated withThe 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine
  • , Toshiyuki EnomotoAffiliated withThe 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine
  • , Jiro NagaoAffiliated withThe 3rd Department of Surgery, Toho University School of Medicine
  • , Purkhet AbderyimAffiliated withDepartment of Computer and Information Sciences, Faculty of Engineering, Iwate University
  • , Katsuo AizawaAffiliated withTokyo Medical University
  • , Etsuro TanakaAffiliated withDepartment of Nutritional Science, Faculty of Applied Bio-Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture
    • , Hidezo MoriAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiac Physiology, National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute
    • , Toshiaki KawaiAffiliated withElectron Tube Division #2, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.
    • , Shigeru EharaAffiliated withDepartment of Radiology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University
    • , Shigehiro SatoAffiliated withDepartment of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University
    • , Akira OgawaAffiliated withDepartment of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Iwate Medical University
    • , Jun OnagawaAffiliated withDepartment of Electronics, Faculty of Engineering, Tohoku Gakuin University

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Abstract

X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is useful for measuring density distributions of contrast media in vivo. An XRF camera was developed for carrying out mapping for iodine-based contrast media used in medical angiography. Objects are exposed by an X-ray beam from a cerium target. Cerium K-series X-rays are absorbed effectively by iodine media in objects, and iodine fluorescence is produced from the objects. Next, iodine Kα fluorescence is selected out by use of a 58-µm-thick stannum filter and is detected by a cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector. The Kα rays are discriminated out by a multichannel analyzer, and the number of photons is counted by a counter card. The objects are moved and scanned by an x–y stage in conjunction with a two-stage controller, and X-ray images obtained by iodine mapping are shown on a personal computer monitor. The scan pitch of the x and y axes was 2.5 mm, and the photon counting time per mapping point was 2.0 s. We carried out iodine mapping of non-living animals (phantoms), and iodine Kα fluorescence was produced from weakly remaining iodine elements in a rabbit skin cancer.

Keywords

X-ray photon counting Energy discrimination X-ray camera X-ray fluorescence CdTe detector DDS