, Volume 96, Issue 6, pp 743-747
Date: 07 Nov 2012

Fludarabine and cytarabine in patients with relapsed acute myeloid leukemia refractory to initial salvage therapy

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The most effective regimen for relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who do not achieve complete remission (CR) after a course of salvage therapy has not been established. We evaluated the efficacy and toxicity of fludarabine and cytarabine in patients with AML in first relapse who did not respond to a course of salvage chemotherapy with mitoxantrone and etoposide. CR was achieved in 39 % of treated patients, and in 47 % of patients with a favorable/intermediate-risk karyotype. The median overall survival was 4.75 months. The median survival for patients achieving CR with fludarabine–cytarabine was significantly higher than for those who did not respond to therapy (9.6 vs. 4.5 months, P = 0.04). Our data suggest that the fludarabine–cytarabine regimen merits further investigation in relapsed AML patients with favorable or intermediate-risk karyotype with persistent leukemia after a course of salvage therapy.