Safety and feasibility of high-dose ranimustine (MCNU), carboplatin, etoposide, and cyclophosphamide (MCVC) therapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation for malignant lymphoma
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- Kameoka, Y., Takahashi, N., Ishizawa, K. et al. Int J Hematol (2012) 96: 624. doi:10.1007/s12185-012-1186-7
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High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (auto-SCT) is widely used as a salvage therapy in the treatment of refractory malignant lymphoma. To investigate the safety and feasibility of a high-dose MCNU, carboplatin, etoposide and cyclophosphamide (MCVC) regimen, we conducted a prospective multicenter trial. Thirty patients with relapsed/refractory/poor-risk non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL n = 27) or Hodgkin lymphoma (HD n = 3) were uniformly treated with an MCVC regimen and underwent auto-SCT. The median follow-up duration of the surviving patients was 67 months (56–133 months). The major toxicities were anorexia (94 %), diarrhea (80 %), nausea (79 %), febrile neutropenia (70 %), alopecia (67 %) and mucositis (60 %). Three patients developed severe left ventricular dysfunction, and two patients developed severe sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS). Of these patients, two died without disease progression. Treatment-related mortality was 6.6 %. Late-onset adverse events including two cases of cytomegalovirus pneumonia and one of interstitial pneumonia were observed. In DLBCL (n = 13) and transformed FL (n = 2) patients, OS and EFS at 3 years were 72 and 46 %, respectively. These results suggest that the MCVC regimen followed by auto-SCT is a feasible and tolerable therapy for relapsed/refractory malignant lymphoma. However, cardiac toxicity due to high-dose cyclophosphamide and development of SOS can occur and should be carefully monitored. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of this regimen.