International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 93, Issue 3, pp 294–300

The mechanisms of cancer immunoescape and development of overcoming strategies

  • Tomonori Yaguchi
  • Hidetoshi Sumimoto
  • Chie Kudo-Saito
  • Nobuo Tsukamoto
  • Ryo Ueda
  • Tomoko Iwata-Kajihara
  • Hiroshi Nishio
  • Naoshi Kawamura
  • Yutaka Kawakami
Progress in Hematology Cancer immunology

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-011-0799-6

Cite this article as:
Yaguchi, T., Sumimoto, H., Kudo-Saito, C. et al. Int J Hematol (2011) 93: 294. doi:10.1007/s12185-011-0799-6

Abstract

Cancer-induced immunosuppression is a major problem as it reduces the anti-tumor effects of immunotherapies. In cancer tissues, cancer cells, immune cells, and other stromal cells interact and create an immunosuppressive microenvironment through a variety of immunosuppressive factors. Some cancer subpopulations such as cancer cells undergoing epithelial–mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like cells have immunosuppressive and immunoresistant properties. The production of immunosuppressive factors by cancer cells is mechanistically attributed to oncogenic signals frequently activated in cancer cells, including the STAT3, MAPK, NF-κB, and Wnt/β-catenin signals, which are upstream events leading to immunosuppressive cascades. Moreover, some of these signals are also activated in immunosuppressive immune cells stimulated by cancer-derived factors and contribute to their immunosuppressive activities. Therefore, targeting these signals both in cancer cells and immunosuppressive immune cells may result in the restoration of immunocompetence in cancer patients and improve current immunotherapy.

Keywords

Cancer immunotherapyImmunosuppressionEMTCancer stem cellMesenchymal stem cellOncogenic signal

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Hematology 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tomonori Yaguchi
    • 1
  • Hidetoshi Sumimoto
    • 1
  • Chie Kudo-Saito
    • 1
  • Nobuo Tsukamoto
    • 1
  • Ryo Ueda
    • 1
  • Tomoko Iwata-Kajihara
    • 1
  • Hiroshi Nishio
    • 1
    • 2
  • Naoshi Kawamura
    • 1
  • Yutaka Kawakami
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Cellular SignalingInstitute for Advanced Medical ResearchTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Department of Obstetrics and GynecologyKeio University School of MedicineTokyoJapan