International Journal of Hematology

, Volume 91, Issue 3, pp 516–521

Emergence of chronic myelogenous leukemia during treatment for essential thrombocythemia

Authors

  • Shinsuke Mizutani
    • Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of MedicineKyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
    • Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of MedicineKyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
  • Daisuke Shimizu
    • Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of MedicineKyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
    • Department of MedicineFukuchiyama City Hospital
  • Shigeo Horiike
    • Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of MedicineKyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
  • Masafumi Taniwaki
    • Division of Hematology and Oncology, Department of MedicineKyoto Prefectural University of Medicine
Case Report

DOI: 10.1007/s12185-010-0502-3

Cite this article as:
Mizutani, S., Kuroda, J., Shimizu, D. et al. Int J Hematol (2010) 91: 516. doi:10.1007/s12185-010-0502-3

Abstract

A 72-year-old male patient was initially diagnosed with essential thrombocythemia (ET), a Philadelphia chromosome-negative (Ph1) chronic myeloproliferative disorder (CMPD), and was treated with hydroxyurea (HU). After 9 years of diagnosis of ET, his peripheral leukocytes gradually increased, while his platelet count showed a decrease. Bone marrow analysis disclosed Ph-positive chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in the chronic phase. Administration of imatinib mesylate (IM), a Bcr–Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), induced complete hematologic response in a month, but was discontinued after 4 months because of Grade 3 pleural effusion (PE). The treatment was switched to nilotinib which successfully induced a complete cytogenetic response (CCyR) after 5 months of TKI therapy and resolved the PE. Despite CCyR, however, ET recurred. Since then, the patient has been treated for 8 months with a combination of nilotinib and HU which has successfully controlled both CML and ET. This report includes a review of the characteristics of 15 reported cases with co-occurrence of CML and Bcr–Abl-negative CMPDs, including ours. Although rare, care needs to be taken since, despite the often similar clinical features of the two diseases, they require completely different treatments.

Keywords

Chronic myelogenous leukemia Essential thrombocythemia Chronic myeloproliferative disorder Tyrosine kinase inhibitor

Copyright information

© The Japanese Society of Hematology 2010