, Volume 91, Issue 2, pp 284-292
Date: 09 Jan 2010

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation versus chemotherapy as post-remission therapy for intermediate or poor risk adult acute myeloid leukemia: results of the JALSG AML97 study

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We prospectively compared allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) with chemotherapy as a post-remission therapy in a multicenter trial (JALSG AML97) of adult patients with intermediate or poor risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Of 503 patients aged 15–50 years old registered between December 1997 and July 2001, 392 achieved complete remission (CR). CR patients classified in the intermediate or poor risk group using a new scoring system were tissue typed. Seventy-three with and 92 without an HLA-identical sibling were assigned to the donor and no-donor groups. Of 73 patients in the donor group, 38 (52%) received allo-HSCT during CR1 and 17 (23%) after relapse. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the relapse incidence was reduced in the donor group (52 vs. 77%; p = 0.008), and the disease-free survival (DFS) improved (39 vs. 19%; p = 0.016), but overall survival (OS) was not significantly different (46 vs. 29%; p = 0.088). The OS benefit was seen in the patients aged 36–50 years old (49 vs. 24%; p = 0.031), suggesting an advantage of allo-HSCT among older patients with leukemia that is more resistant to chemotherapy than that among younger patients.

For the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG).