Guidelines for the management of febrile neutropenia (FN), deep fungal infection or use of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) published in the US and Europe cannot be directly applied in other countries. In this study, we undertook a questionnaire survey of member institutions of the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group to investigate the status of, and problems with, the management of infectious complications in patients with acute leukemia. The questionnaire consisted of 52 multiple-choice questions covering therapeutic environment, antibacterial, and antifungal prophylaxis, empirical therapy (ET) for FN, and use of G-CSF. The results were compared to a previous survey performed in 2001. Usable responses were received from 134 of 184 (71.7%) institutions. With regard to antibacterial prophylaxis, fluoroquinolones and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim were most commonly used. Regarding antifungal prophylaxis, the most frequently used agent was fluconazole, followed by itraconazole. In ET for FN, monotherapy with cephems or carbapenems accounted for almost all of the responses. Most respondents indicated that they used micafungin (MCFG) in ET. Prophylactic use of G-CSF during remission induction therapy in acute myeloid leukemia was reported by only 4% of respondents. Strategies for antibacterial and antifungal prophylaxis or treatment of FN should be reviewed and updated as needed.