, Volume 7, Issue 5, pp 346-353
Date: 29 Aug 2013

Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction - Integration into Clinical Practice

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Introduction

An estimated 83.6 million American adults have atherosclerotic cardiovascular vascular disease (CVD) and one in every three deaths in the Unites States is attributed to CVD. Coronary heart disease (CHD) alone caused about one of every six deaths in the US in 2008. More than half of patients who present as sudden cardiac death have no antecedent symptoms [1].

Risk assessment and stratification of asymptomatic adults are essential parts of CVD preventive strategies [2]. Interventions usually have the same relative-risk reduction across different risk strata. The highest absolute-risk reduction will occur for individuals with the highest pre-treatment risk. Accordingly, determination of absolute risk is crucial to adequately assess the risk-benefit ratio.

The absolute risk of a cardiovascular event can be estimated from the presence or absence of certain risk factors (RFs). Those RFs usually coexist and interact with each other. Mild elevation in multiple RFs has much more effec