Risk Factors for Heart Failure in Young Adults
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- Landzberg, J. & Gardin, J.M. Curr Cardio Risk Rep (2010) 4: 128. doi:10.1007/s12170-010-0079-7
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Heart failure (HF) is now recognized as a progressive disorder that typically begins with an asymptomatic state in patients with risk factors (Stage A), proceeds to developing structural abnormalities (Stage B), following which symptoms commonly develop (Stages C and D) unless treatment is initiated. Risk factors for developing HF include hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease including smoking and hypercholesterolemia. Although the incidence of HF in young adults is very low, they have a high lifetime incidence of developing HF (approximately one in five). The landmark CARDIA study found that risk factors for HF in young adults were similar to those seen in older adults. To decrease the future burden of HF it is essential to identify and intervene in those patients at risk, namely those in Stages A and B.