Heart failure in African Americans: Earlier onset, different etiologies, and poorer prognosis
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- Horwich, T.B. & Fonarow, G.C. Curr Cardio Risk Rep (2008) 2: 198. doi:10.1007/s12170-008-0037-9
Heart failure (HF) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Caucasians, with an earlier age of onset and higher likelihood of nonischemic etiology and prior hypertension. Most studies show increased rates of hospitalizations in African Americans with HF, with similar overall survival. Clinical trials provide evidence of benefits with standard HF medical therapy in this population, including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and β-blockers. African Americans with HF derive substantial survival benefits with the fixed-dose combination of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine when added to other standard therapies. African American patients with HF receive similar quality of care in terms of certain HF medications but are less likely to receive HF education and counseling or implantable cardioverter defibrillators.