, Volume 7, Issue 10, pp 2095-2106
Date: 11 Apr 2014

Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Artichoke, Garlic and Spinach by Ultra-High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Tandem Mass Spectrometry

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Phenolic compounds were determined in artichoke (Cynara scolymus), garlic (Allium sativium) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) using a single method based on simple extraction and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS/MS). Several compounds belonging to different families, such as phenolic acids, isoflavones, flavones and flavonols, were determined. The analytical procedure was validated in all the matrices, obtaining recoveries ranging from 60 to 120 % with reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard deviations (RSDs)) lower than 26 %. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were always equal to or lower than 50 μg/kg, except to kaempferol and its glucosides in spinach (LOQs = 75 μg/kg). Artichoke showed higher concentration of phenolic compounds (837.2 mg/kg dry weight (DW)) than garlic (26.5 mg/kg DW) or spinach (64.5 mg/kg DW). Apigenin 7-O-glucoside (from 147.0 to 722.7 mg/kg DW) was found to be the major flavonoid in all samples of artichoke investigated, while chlorogenic acid, whose concentration ranged from 37.8 to 734.7 mg/kg DW, is the major phenolic acid in this matrix. Regarding garlic, caffeic acid (from 1.7 to 28.3 mg/kg DW) and quercetin (from 9.0 to 18.9 mg/kg DW) were the compounds detected at higher concentrations, although in general the total content was very low in relation to other matrices. In relation to spinach, ferulic acid was the major phenolic compound, and its concentration ranged from 18.0 to 41.4 mg/kg DW.