, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 490-499
Date: 18 Sep 2013

Trace Analysis of Seven Neonicotinoid Insecticides in Bee Pollen by Solid–Liquid Extraction and Liquid Chromatography Coupled to Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

A new, fast, simple, and efficient sample treatment to extract seven neonicotinoid insecticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) in corbicular bee pollen has been developed. This procedure consisted of a solid–liquid extraction of the neonicotinoids from pollen with dichloromethane, followed by evaporation and reconstitution. Once the neonicotinoids were extracted, they were determined using a liquid chromatography coupled to an electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method. The method was validated in terms of selectivity, linearity, precision and recovery. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.4–2.8 μg/kg and 1.2–9.1 μg/kg, respectively, and the extraction recoveries were between 86 and 106 % in all cases. Finally, the proposed method was applied to analyze bee pollen samples collected from apiaries located close to fruit orchards in two Spanish regions, and traces of acetamiprid and imidacloprid were found in two samples.