Original Article

Annals of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 299-307

Type D Personality Is Associated with the Development of Stress Cardiomyopathy Following Emotional Triggers

  • Angelo CompareAffiliated withUniversity of Bergamo Email author 
  • , Riccardo BigiAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiovascular Sciences, University School of Medicine
  • , Pedro Silva OrregoAffiliated withInterventional Cardiology Unit, Hospital Fatebenefratelli
  • , Riccardo ProiettiAffiliated withDepartment of Cardiology, Hospital L. Sacco
  • , Enzo GrossiAffiliated withCentro Diagnostico Italiano, CDI
  • , Andrew SteptoeAffiliated withPsychobiology Group, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University College London

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Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) can be triggered by emotional events. Recently, type D personality has been established as an independent predictor of acute cardiac adverse events.


We sought to examine whether type D personality can be identified in SCM patients.


A case–control study with 37 SCM patients, 37 myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, who both experienced emotional triggering, and 37 SCM patients without emotional triggers was performed. The DS14 and Interview for Recent Life Events were administered.


Twenty-eight (76 %) SCM emotional trigger patients were categorized as type D compared with 13 (43 %) SCM patients without emotional trigger and 12 (32 %) AMI patients (p < 0.001). SCM patients with emotional triggers had higher scores on the social inhibition subscale than the other patient groups.


The present study highlights the possible link between type D, with a specific key role for social inhibition component, and increased biological reactivity to acute emotional stress.


Stress cardiomyopathy Case–control Studies Personality traits Emotional triggering Type D