Giovino GA, Chaloupka FJ, Hartman AM, et al. Cigarette Smoking Prevalence and Policies in the 50 States: An Era of Change—The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation ImpacTeen Tobacco Chart Book. Buffalo: University at Buffalo, State University of New York; 2009.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking prevalence among women of reproductive age—United States. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 57: 849-852.
Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, et al. Births: Final data for 2004. Natl Vital Stat Rep. 2006; 55: 1-101.
Tong VT, Jones JR, Dietz PM, D’Angelo D, Bombard JM. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy—Pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS), United States, 31 sites, 2000–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009; 58: 1-29.
Colman GJ, Joyce T. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy in ten states. Am J Prev Med
. 2003; 24: 29-35.PubMedCrossRef
Mullen PD. How can more smoking suspension during pregnancy become lifelong abstinence? Lessons learned about predictors, interventions, and gaps in our accumulated knowledge. Nicotine Tob Res
. 2004; 6: S217-S238.PubMedCrossRef
DiFranza JR, Aligne CA, Weitzman M. Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health. Pediatrics
. 2004; 113: 1007-1015.PubMed
Jedrychowski W, Flak E. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and postnatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke as predisposition factors to acute respiratory infections. Environ Heal Perspect
. 1997; 105: 302-306.CrossRef
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke: A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health; 2006.
Kahn RS, Certain L, Whitaker RC. A reexamination of smoking before, during, and after pregnancy. Am J Public Health
. 2002; 92: 1801-1808.PubMedCrossRef
Fingerhut LA, Kleinman JC, Kendrick JS. Smoking before, during, and after pregnancy. Am J Public Health
. 1990; 80: 541-544.PubMedCrossRef
McKnight A, Merret JD. Smoking in pregnancy—A health education problem. J R Coll Gen Pract
. 1986; 36: 161-164.PubMed
Nafstad P, Botten G, Hagen J. Partner's smoking: A major determinant for changes in women's smoking behaviour during and after pregnancy. Public Health
. 1996; 110: 379-385.PubMedCrossRef
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Trends in smoking before, during, and after pregnancy—Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), United States, 31 Sites, 2000–2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009; 58: 1-36.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette smoking among adults and trends in smoking cessation—United States, 2008. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2009; 58: 1227-1232.
Higgins ST, Heil SH, Badger GJ, et al. Educational disadvantage and cigarette smoking during pregnancy. Drug Alcohol Depend
. 2009; 104: S100-S105.PubMedCrossRef
Crittenden KS, Manfredi C, Cho YI, Dolecek TA. Smoking cessation processes in low-SES women: The impact of time-varying pregnancy status, health care messages, stress, and health concerns. Addict Behav
. 2007; 32: 1347-1366.PubMedCrossRef
Rutter DR, Quine L. Inequalities in pregnancy outcome: A review of psychosocial and behavioural mediators. Soc Sci Med
. 1990; 30: 553-568.PubMedCrossRef
Park ER, Chang Y, Quinn V, et al. The association of depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms and postpartum relapse to smoking: A longitudinal study. Nicotine Tob Res
. 2009; 11: 707-714.PubMedCrossRef
Carmichael SL, Ahluwalia IB. Correlates of postpartum smoking relapse: Results from the pregnancy risk assessment monitoring system (PRAMS). Am J Prev Med
. 2000; 19: 193-196.PubMedCrossRef
Van’t Hof SM, Wall MA, Dowler DW, Stark MJ. Randomised controlled trial of a postpartum relapse prevention intervention. Tob Control
. 2000; 9: iii64-iii66.PubMed
Mullen PD, Richardson MA, Quinn VP, Ershoff DH. Postpartum return to smoking: Who is at risk and when. Am J Heal Promot
. 1997; 11: 323-330.CrossRef
Gallo LC, Matthews KA. Understanding the association between socioeconomic status and physical health: Do negative emotions play a role? Psychol Bull
. 2003; 129: 10-51.PubMedCrossRef
Adler NE, Ostrove JM. Socioeconomic status and health: What we know and what we don't. Ann N Y Acad Sci
. 1999; 896: 3-15.PubMedCrossRef
Kendzor DE, Businelle MS, Mazas CA, et al. Pathways between socioeconomic status and health behavior among African American smokers. J Behav Med
. 2009; 32: 545-557.PubMedCrossRef
Matthews KA, Gallo LC, Taylor SE. Are psychosocial factors mediators of socioeconomic status and health connections? A progress report and blueprint for the future. Ann N Y Acad Sci
. 2010; 1186: 146-173.PubMedCrossRef
Ritter C, Hobfoll SE, Lavin J, Cameron RP, Hulsizer MR. Stress, psychosocial resources, and depressive symptomatology during pregnancy in low-income, inner-city women. Health Psychol
. 2000; 19: 576-585.PubMedCrossRef
Witkiewitz K, Marlatt GA. Relapse prevention for alcohol and drug problems: That was Zen, this is Tao. Am Psychol
. 2004; 59: 224-235.PubMedCrossRef
Businelle MS, Kendzor DE, Costello TJ, et al. Mechanisms linking socioeconomic status to smoking cessation: A structural equation modeling approach. Health Psychol
. 2010; 29: 262-273.PubMedCrossRef
Killen JD, Fortmann SP. Craving is associated with smoking relapse: Findings from three prospective studies. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol
. 1997; 5: 137-142.PubMedCrossRef
Doherty K, Kinnunen T, Militello F, Garvey A. Urges to smoke during the first month of abstinence: Relationship to relapse and predictors. Psychopharmacology
. 1995; 119: 171-178.PubMedCrossRef
Gallo LC, Matthews KA. Do negative emotions mediate the association between socioeconomic status and health? In: Adler NE, Marmot M, McEwen BS, Stewart J, eds. Socioeconomic status and health in industrial nations: Social, psychological, and biological pathways. New York: New York Academy of Science; 1999.
Reitzel LR, Vidrine JI, Businelle MS, et al. Preventing postpartum smoking relapse among diverse, low income women: A randomized clinical trial. Nicotine Tob Res
. 2010; 12: 326-335.PubMedCrossRef
Fiore MC, Jaen CR, Baker TB, et al. Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update. Clinical Practice Guideline. Rockville: Department of Health and Human Services. Public Health Service; 2008.
Watson D, Clark LA, Tellegen A. Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. J Personal Soc Psychol
. 1988; 54: 1063-1070.CrossRef
Radloff LS. The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Appl Psychol Meas
. 1977; 1: 385-401.CrossRef
Cohen, Kamarck T, Mermelstein R. A gobal measure of perceived stress. J Heal Soc Behav
. 1983; 24: 385-396.CrossRef
Velicer WF, Diclemente CC, Rossi JS, Prochaska JO. Relapse situations and self-efficacy: An integrative model. Addict Behav
. 1990; 15: 271-283.PubMedCrossRef
Wetter DW, Brandon TH, Baker TB. The relation of affective processing measures and smoking motivation indices among college-age smokers. Adv Behav Res Ther
. 1992; 14: 169-193.CrossRef
Welsch SK, Smith SS, Wetter DW, et al. Development and validation of the Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol
. 1999; 7: 354-361.PubMedCrossRef
Muthén LK, Muthén BO. Mplus user's guide. 5th ed. Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén; 2007.
Kendzor DE, Cofta-Woerpel LM, Mazas CA, et al. Socioeconomic status, negative affect, and modifiable cancer risk factors in African-American smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomark Prev
. 2008; 17: 2546-2554.CrossRef
Webb MS, de Ybarra DR, Baker EA, Reis IM, Carey MP. Cognitive-behavioral therapy to promote smoking cessation among African American smokers: A randomized clinical trial. J Consult Clin Psychol
. 2010; 78: 24-33.PubMedCrossRef
Swan GE, McClure JB, Jack LM, et al. Behavioral counseling and varenicline treatment for smoking cessation. Am J Prev Med
. 2010; 38: 482-490.PubMedCrossRef
Bentler PM. Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychol Bull
. 1990; 107: 238-246.PubMedCrossRef
Hu L, Bentler PM. Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to underparameterized model misspecification. Psychol Methods
. 1998; 3: 424-453.CrossRef
Browne MW, Cudeck R. Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In: Bollen KA, Long JS, eds. Testing structural equation models. Beverly Hills: Sage; 1993: 136-162.
Yu CY, Muthén B. Evaluation of model fit indices for latent variable models with categorical and continuous outcomes (technical report). Los Angeles: University of California at Los Angeles, Graduate School of Education and Information Studies; 2002.
Brown TA. Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. New York: Guilford Press; 2006.
Tucker LR, Lewis C. A reliability coefficient for maximum likelihood factor analysis. Psychometrika
. 1973; 38: 1-10.CrossRef
Steiger JH. Structural model equation and modification: An interval estimation approach. Multivar Behav Res. 1990; 25: 173-180.
Schwarz G. Estimating the dimension of a model. Ann Stat
. 1978; 6: 461-464.CrossRef
Kass RE, Raftery AE. Bayes factors. J Am Stat Assoc
. 1995; 90: 773-795.CrossRef
Raftery AE. Bayesian model selection in social research. Sociol Methodol
. 1995; 25: 111-163.CrossRef
Siahpush M, McNeill A, Borland R, Fong GT. Socioeconomic variations in nicotine dependence, self-efficacy, and intention to quit across four countries: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control
. 2006; 15: iii71-iii75.PubMedCrossRef
Jarvis MJ, Wardle J. Social patterning of individual health behaviours: The case of cigarette smoking. In: Marmot M, Wilkinson RG, eds. Social determinants of health. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 1999.
Hyland A, Li Q, Bauer JE, et al. Predictors of cessation in a cohort of current and former smokers followed over 13 years. Nicotine Tob Res
. 2004; 6: S363-S369.PubMedCrossRef
Killen JD, Fortmann SP, Kraemer HC, Varady A, Newman B. Who will relapse? Symptoms of nicotine dependence predict long-term relapse after smoking cessation. J Consult Clin Psychol
. 1992; 60: 797-801.PubMedCrossRef
Polanska K, Hanke W, Sobala W, Lowe J, Jaakkola JK. Predictors of smoking relapse after delivery: Prospective study in Central Poland. Matern Child Health J
. 2011; 15: 579-586.PubMedCrossRef
Lemola S, Grob A. Smoking cessation during pregnancy and relapse after childbirth: The impact of the grandmother's smoking status. Matern Child Health J
. 2008; 12: 525-533.PubMedCrossRef
Ma Y, Goins K, Pbert L, Ockene J. Predictors of smoking cessation in pregnancy and maintenance postpartum in low-income women. Matern Child Health J
. 2005; 9: 393-402.PubMedCrossRef
Fang WL, Goldstein AO, Butzen AY, et al. Smoking cessation in pregnancy: A review of postpartum relapse prevention strategies. J Am Board Fam Pract
. 2004; 17: 264-275.PubMedCrossRef
Manfredi C, Cho YI, Crittenden KS, Dolecek TA. A path model of smoking cessation in women smokers of low socio-economic status. Health Educ Res
. 2007; 22: 747-756.PubMedCrossRef
Ullman JB. Structural equation modeling: Reviewing the basics and moving forward. J Personal Assess
. 2006; 87: 35-50.CrossRef
Coleman-Cowger V. Smoking cessation intervention for pregnant women: A call for extension to the postpartum period. Matern Child Health J. 2011; 16: 937-940.