BioEnergy Research

, Volume 2, Issue 3, pp 106–122

Biomass and Genotype × Environment Interactions of Populus Energy Crops in the Midwestern United States


    • Northern Research Station, Institute for Applied Ecosystem StudiesU.S. Forest Service
  • Richard B. Hall
    • Department of Natural Resource Ecology and ManagementIowa State University
  • Jill A. Zalesny
    • Northern Research Station, Institute for Applied Ecosystem StudiesU.S. Forest Service
  • Bernard G. McMahon
    • Natural Resources Research InstituteUniversity of Minnesota
  • William E. Berguson
    • Natural Resources Research InstituteUniversity of Minnesota
  • Glen R. Stanosz
    • Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of Wisconsin-Madison

DOI: 10.1007/s12155-009-9039-9

Cite this article as:
Zalesny, R.S., Hall, R.B., Zalesny, J.A. et al. Bioenerg. Res. (2009) 2: 106. doi:10.1007/s12155-009-9039-9


Using Populus feedstocks for biofuels, bioenergy, and bioproducts is becoming economically feasible as global fossil fuel prices increase. Maximizing Populus biomass production across regional landscapes largely depends on understanding genotype × environment interactions, given broad genetic variation at strategic (genomic group) and operational (clone) levels. A regional network of Populus field tests was established in the Midwest USA in 1995, 1997, and 2000 to assess relative productivity of 187 clones grown at Westport, Minnesota (45.7° N, 95.2° W); Waseca, Minnesota (only 2000; 44.1° N, 93.5° W); Arlington, Wisconsin (43.3° N, 89.4° W); and Ames, Iowa (42.0° N, 93.6° W). We evaluated biomass potential throughout plantation development and identified clones with yield substantially greater than commercial controls (Eugenei, NM6). For each site, biomass ranges (Mg ha−1 year−1) of the best six clones were: Westport: 2.3 to 3.9 (5 years), 8.0 to 10.1 (8 years), and 8.9 to 11.3 (10 years); Waseca: 10.4 to 13.4 (7 years); Arlington: 5.1 to 7.1 (3 years), 14.8 to 20.9 (6 years), and 16.1 to 21.1 (8 years); and Ames: 4.3 to 5.3 (4 years), 11.1 to 20.9 (7 years), and 14.3 to 24.5 (9 years). Mean biomass of the best three clones was 1.4 to 2.7 times greater than controls as trees developed at Westport (1995, 1997) and Waseca 2000. Genotype × environment interactions governed biomass production, with clone–mean rank correlations across sites ranging from 0.29 to 0.81. We identified generalist genotypes (e.g. Crandon, NC14105, NM2) with elevated biomass across the region and specialists (e.g. 7300501, 80X01015, and NC14103) with exceptional biomass at specific locations.


BioenergyFeedstock developmentHybrid poplarProductivityTree improvement



diameter at breast height


least significant difference


standard error

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2009