Harold John Timperley, Qinhua Rijun baoxing lu (Japanese Terror in China), translated by Ma Guangping, Wan Gaochao, et al. (New China Press, 1986), p. 111.
See Nanjing newspaper, Xinminbao (The New Citizen), 29 August 1937, p. 2.
“Nanjing shizhengfu junshiweiyuanhui houfang qinwubu han (Letter from the Interior Affairs Department of the Military Affairs Committee, Nanjing Muncipal Government)” dated 23 November 1937. Nanjing Muncipal Archives.
Riben diguozhuyi qinhua dangan ziliao xuanbian: Nanjing datusha (Selected Documents from Documents on the Japanese Imperialist Invasion of China: Nanjing Massacre) (China Press, 1995), p. 14.
Tao Jinghuan, “Shoudu kongxizhong de xingxingshishi (Nanjing under the Air Raids),” in the Nanjing newspaper, Xinbao, 19 October 1997.
Hu Hualing, Jinling yongsheng: Wei Telin nushizhuan (The Biography of Minnie Vautrin). (Taiwan Jiuge, 1997), p. 79.
Xu Ziling, “Nanjing zai kongxi xia (Nanjing under the Air Raids),” Xinbao, 19 October 1937.
“Women gangtieban de guodu (Our Steel-like Capital City),” Shishi Semi-monthly, Vol. 1, no. 3.
Labei rije (Rabe's Diary) (Jiangsu People's Publishing House, 1997), p, 165, 170.
M.S. Bates, Tianli nanrong—Meiguo chuanjiaoshi yanzhong de Nanjing de datusha (The Nanjing Massacre seen from the Eyes of an American Missionary). Translated by Zhang Kairuan (Nanjing University Press, 1995), p. 5.
Qin-Hua Rijun Nanjing datusha shiliao (Historical Records on the Nanjing Massacre by the Invading Japanese Troops) (Jiangsu Antiquities Press, 1985).
Interviewed by the author and Wu Xiaojing on 31 December 1998.
Historical Records, p. 12.
Nanjing datusha yu sanguan zuozhan (The Nanjing Massacre and the Three-All Tactics) (Sichuan Educational Press, 1984).
In the interviews by the author, the survivors explained that, to this day, they could not understand why they were so cowardly.
In the interviews, many of the survivors mentioned the sound of the Japanese soldiers' boots, especially the women who trembled as soon as they heard the sound of the boots.
Xu Zhigeng, Nanjing datusha (The Nanjing Massacre) (The Liberation Army Press, 1998), p. 217.
Historical Records, p. 83.
Bates, American Missionary, p. 458.
“Wei Telin riji (Minnie Vautrin's Diaries)” for 20 January 1938. Xerox copy.
“Vautrin's Diaries,” 17 February 1938.
Rabe's letter to his wife quoted in Bates, American Missionary, p. 32.
Lewis C.S. Smyth quoted in Historical Records (1985).
Document 1002-2-928 in Nanjing Muncipal Archives.
Zhang Kairuan, Nanjing datusha de lishi jianzheng (Historical Evidence for the Nanjing Massacre) (Hubei People's Press, 1995), 132–133.
Zhang, Historical Evidence, p. 224.
“Vautrin's Diaries,” 29 January 1940.
“Rosen's Report to the German Ministry of Foreign Affairs,” 20 Jan. 1938 quoted in Kang-Ri zhanzheng yanjiu (Studies on the Sino-Japanese War), no. 2(1991).
Zhang, Historical Evidence, p. 155.
Hu, Biography of Minnie Vautrin, pp. 180–181.
Nanjing edition of the Xinhua ribao (New China Daily News), 23 January 1999.
Author's interview on 20 September 1999.
Recently on 15 November 1999 there was the case of a Japanese tourist who forced a Chinese female manager to kneel on the floor. Public indignation was aroused throughout Hubei province. Within one day the local paper received more than 300 phone calls. Throughout the nation more than fifty newspapers reported the story in great detail. See Xinhua ribao (New China Daily News), 19 November 1999.