Original Paper


, Volume 10, Issue 2, pp 149-156

First online:

The Criterion or Criteria of Change

  • Xiaoqiang HanAffiliated withDepartment of Philosophy, University of Manitoba Email author 

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In this paper, I offer an examination of the two existing criteria of change, one indicated, implicitly, by Aristotle and the other proposed, quite formally, by Russell. Both criteria engender problems. While the Aristotelian criterion is both too narrow and too broad, as it includes bogus changes and excludes subjectless changes, the Russellian criterion avoids the distinction between genuine changes and bogus changes completely. The aim of the paper is to address these problems and to show how these two existing criteria of change can be made to deal with the problems through revision and integration.


Aristotle Cambridge change Subjectless change Subject–predicate propositions Feature-placing propositions