Original Paper


, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 65-87

First online:

Proof of the Existence of Universals—and Roman Ingarden’s Ontology

  • Ingvar JohanssonAffiliated withInstitute for Formal Ontology and Medical Information Science (IFOMIS), Saarland University Email author 

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The paper ends with an argument that says: necessarily, if there are finitely spatially extended particulars, then there are monadic universals. Before that, in order to characterize the distinction between particulars and universals, Roman Ingarden’s notions of “existential moments” and “modes (ways) of being” are presented, and a new pair of such existential moments is introduced: multiplicity–monadicity. Also, it is argued that there are not only real universals, but instances of universals (tropes) and fictional universals too.


Universals Particulars Ingarden Ways of being Existential moments