Al-Saleh, I., & Al-Doush, I. (1997). Mercury content in skin lightening creams and potential hazards to the health of Saudi Women. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health,
, 123–130.Google Scholar
Ashikari, M. (2005). Cultivating Japanese whiteness—The whitening cosmetics boom and the Japanese identity. Journal of Material Culture,
, 73–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Barnes, N. (1997). Face of the nation: Race, nationalisms, identities in Jamaican beauty pageants. In C. L. Springfield (Ed.), Daughters of caliban: Caribbean women in the twentieth century
(pp. 285–306). Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
Blay, Y. A. (2007). Yellow fever: Skin bleaching and the politics of skin color in Ghana. Ph.D. Dissertation. Temple University.
Brathwaite, E. (1978). The development of Creole society in Jamaica, 1770–1820
. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
Brown-Glaude, W. (2007). The fact of Blackness? The bleached body in contemporary Jamaica. Small Axe, 11
, 34–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Canotal, E. E. (2009). An overseas example of lighter is better: The implications of colorism among male sex workers in Thailand. Master’s Thesis. Smith College School for Social Work.
Charles, C. A. D. (2003a). Skin bleaching, self-hate and Black identity in Jamaica. Journal of Black Studies,
, 711–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Charles, C. A. D. (2003b). Skin bleaching and the deconstruction of Blackness. Ideaz,
, 78–105.Google Scholar
Charles, C. A. D. (2005). Skin bleaching, race and political identity in Jamaica. Unpublished manuscript.
Charles, C. A. D. (2006a). The crowning of the browning: Skin bleaching and the representation of Black identity in the context of dancehall music. MA Thesis, Hunter College of the City University of New York.
Charles, C. A. D. (2006b). The psychology of music and electioneering in the 2002 Jamaican Election. Social and Economic Studies,
, 133–166.Google Scholar
Charles, C. A. D. (2007). Skin bleachers’ representations of skin color in Jamaica. Journal of Black Studies
. Hosted at http://online.sagepub.com
Charles, C. A. D. (2009). Liberating skin bleachers: From mental pathology to complex personhood. Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies,
, 99–114.Google Scholar
Charles, C. A. D. (2010a). Representations of colorism in the Jamaican culture and the practice of skin bleaching. Ph.D. Dissertation. Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New York.
Charles, C. A. D. (2010b). Skin bleaching in Jamaica: Self-esteem, racial self-esteem and Black identity transaction. Caribbean Journal of Psychology,
, 25–39.Google Scholar
Clark, A. P., et al. (2009). Attractiveness in flux: Female preferences for male facial motion depend on mating context and non-additive cues to prosociality and proceptivity. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 7
, 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Coleman, D. (2003). Janet Schaw and the complexion of empire. Eighteenth Century Studies,
, 169–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, C. (2004a). Enslaved in stereotype: Race and representation in post-independence Jamaica. Small Axe,
, 154–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Cooper, C. (2004b). Sound clash: Jamaican dancehall from Lady Saw to dancehall queen. New York: Palgrave MacMillan.
Corbley, C. (2009). Components of sexual orientation: Attractions, behaviors, and identity labels. Ph.D. Dissertation, Ohio State University.
Cramer, P., & Anderson, G. (2003). Ethnic/racial attitudes and self- identification of Black Jamaican and White New England children. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology,
, 395–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
de Souza, M. M. (2008). The concept of skin bleaching in Africa and its devastating health implications. Clinics in Dermatology,
, 27–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Doens, A. C. (1990). Physical attractiveness, sex-typed characteristics, and gender: Are beauty and masculinity linked? Perceptual and Motor Skills, 71, 451–458.
Dubois, W. E. B. (1994). Souls of black folks
. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
Easton, A. (1998). Women have deadly desire for paler skin in the Philippines. Lancet,
, 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Ellis, R. A. (1957). Color and class in a Jamaican market town. Sociology & Social Research, 41
, 354–360.Google Scholar
Fisher, M., & Cox, A. (2009). The influence of female attractiveness on competitor derogation. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 7
, 287–308.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fokuo, J. K. (2009). The lighter side of marriage: Skin bleaching in post-colonial Ghana. African and Asian Studies,
, 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Gharabegian, A. (2009). Personal communication.
Gordon, D. (1988). Race, class and social mobility in Jamaica. In R. Lewis & P. Bryan (Eds.), Garvey: His work and impact
(pp. 264–282). Jamaica: Institute of Social and Economic Research.Google Scholar
Goupal-McNicol, S. (1995). A cross-cultural examination of racial identity and racial preference of preschool children in the West Indies. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology,
, 141–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Graziano, W. G., & Bruce, J. W. (2008). Attraction and the initiation of relationships: A review of the empirical literature. In S. Sprecher, A. Wenzel, & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of relationship initiation (pp. 269–295). New York: Psychology Press.
Hall, R. E. (1994). The “bleaching syndrome”: Implications of light skin for Hispanic American assimilation. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences,
, 307–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, R. E. (1995a). The bleaching syndrome: African Americans’ response to cultural domination vis-à-vis skin color. Journal of Black Studies,
, 172–184.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hall, R. E. (1995b). The color complex: The bleaching syndrome. Race, Gender & Class,
, 99–110.Google Scholar
Henriques, F. (1951). Color values in Jamaican society. British Journal of Sociology, 2
, 115–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hickling, F. W., & Hutchinson, G. (2000). Post-colonialism and mental health: Understanding the roast breadfruit. Psychiatric Bulletin,
, 94–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hope, D. P. (2006). Inna di dancehall: Popular culture and the politics of identity in Jamaica
. Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press.Google Scholar
Hope, D. P. (2009). Fashion ova style: Contemporary notions of skin bleaching in Jamaican dancehall culture. Jenda: A Journal of Culture and African Women Studies,
, 101–126.Google Scholar
Hope, D. P. (2010). Man vibes: Masculinities in the Jamaican dancehall
. Miami: Ian Randle.Google Scholar
Howard, D. (2010). Personal communication.
Hunter, M. L. (2002). “If your’e light you’re alright:” Light skin color as social capital for women of color. Gender & Society,
, 175–193.Google Scholar
Hunter, M. (2007). The persistent problem of colorism: Skin tone, status, and inequality. Sociology Compass,
, 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Jeffreys, S. (2005). Beauty and misogyny: Harmful cultural practices in the west
. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
Karan, K. (2008). Obsessions with fair skin: Color discourses in Indian advertising. Advertising Society & Review,
, 1–13.Google Scholar
Lin, C., & Yeh, J. (2009). Comparing society’s awareness of women: Media-Portrayed idealized images and physical attractiveness. Journal of Business Ethics,
, 61–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Mahe, A., Ly, F., & Guonongbe, A. (2004). The cosmetic use of bleaching products in Dakar, Senegal: Socio-factors and claimed motivations. Sciences Sociales et Sante,
, 5–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Menke, J. (2002, May 27–June 1). Skin bleaching in multi-ethnic and multicolored societies:
The case of Suriname. Paper presented at the Caribbean Studies Association Conference, Nassau, Bahamas.
Mire, A. (2005). Pigmentation and empire: The emerging skin whitening industry. Counter Punch
, 28 July. http://www.counterpunch.org/mire07282005.html
Mohammed, P. (2000). ‘But most of all mi love me browning’: The emergence in the eighteenth and nineteenth century Jamaica of the mulatto woman as the desired. Feminist Review,
, 22–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Oluminde, Y. N., Akinkugbe, A. O., Altraide, D., Mohammed, T., Ahamefule, N., Ayanlowo, S., et al. (2008). Complications of chronic use of skin lightening cosmetics. International Journal of Dermatology,
, 344–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Patterson, O. (1969). The sociology of slavery: An analysis of the origins, development and structure of Negro slave society in Jamaica. Teaneck: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.
Petit, A., Cohen-Ludmann, C., Clevenbergh, P., Bergmann, J. F., & Dubertret, L. (2006). Skin lightening and its complications among African people living in Paris. Journal of American Academy of Dermatology,
, 873–878.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Prasetyaningsih, L. A. S. (2007). The maze of gaze: The color of beauty in transnational Indonesia. Ph.D. Dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park.
Russell, R. (2003). Sex, beauty, and the relative luminance of facial features. Perception,
, 1093–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sanders, T. (2008). Male sexual scripts: Intimacy, sexuality and pleasure in the purchase of commercial sex. Sociology,
, 400–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Sheperd, V. (2000). Image, representation and the project of emancipation: History and identity in the Commonwealth Caribbean. In K. Hall & D. Benn (Eds.), Contending with destiny: The Caribbean in the 21st century
. Kingston: Ian Randle Publishers.Google Scholar
Smith, M. G. (1990). Culture, race and class in the commonwealth Caribbean. Kingston: University of the West Indies.
Sprecher, S., & Femlee, D. (2008). Insider perspectives on attraction. In S. Sprecher, A. Wenzel, & J. Harvey (Eds.), Handbook of relationship initiation (pp. 297–313). New York: Psychology Press.
Stanley-Niaah, S. (2010). Dancehall: From slave ship to ghetto
. Ottawa: University of Ottawa Press.Google Scholar
Stewart, R. J. (1992). Religion and society in post emancipation Jamaica
. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press.Google Scholar
Swami, V., & Furnham, A. (2008). The psychology of physical attraction. New York: Routledge/Taylor & Francis Group.
Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. (2009). Big beautiful women: The body size preferences of male fat admirers. Journal of Sex Research, 46
, 89–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Thomas, D. A. (2002). Modern blackness: “What we are and what we hope to be”. Small Axe,
, 25–48.Google Scholar
Thomas, D. A. (2005). The emergence of modern blackness in Jamaica. NACLA Report on the Americans, November–December.
Travis, C. B., Meginnis, K. L., & Bardari, K. M. (2000). Beauty, sexuality, and identity: The social control of women. In C. B. Travis & J. W. White (Eds.), Sexuality, society, and feminism (pp. 237–272). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
Wells, T. J., et al. (2009). Multiple signals in human mate selection: A review and framework for integrating facial and vocal signals. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 7
, 111–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wignall, M. (2011). Skin bleaching-destructive fashion or self-hate? Jamaica Observer
, 10 February. http://m.jamaicaobserver.com/column/skin-bleaching-destructive-fashion-or-self-hate_8345738
Williams, E. (1966). Capitalism and slavery
. New York: Putnam.Google Scholar
Winders, J., Jones, J. P., I. I. I., & Higgins, M. J. (2005). Making gueras: Selling white identities on late-night Mexican television. Gender, Place and Culture,
, 71–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar