Abdelal R, McDermott R, et al. Identity as a variable. Perspect Polit. 2006;4(4):695–711.Google Scholar
Adcock R, Collier D. Measurement validity: a shared standard for qualitative and quantitative research. Am Polit Sci Rev. 2001;95(3):529–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alesina A, Baqir R, et al. Public goods and ethnic divisions. Q J Econ. 1999;114(4):1243–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Alesina A, Devleeschauwer A, et al. Fractionalization. J Econ Growth. 2003;8:155–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Annett A. Social fractionalization, political instability, and the size of government. IMF Staff Pap. 2001;48(3):561–92.Google Scholar
Appadurai A. Number in the colonial imagination. In: Breckenridge CA, Veer Pvander, editors. Orientalism and the postcolonial predicament. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press; 1993.Google Scholar
Bailey S, Telles EE. Multiracial vs. collective black categories: census classification debates in Brazil. Ethnicities. 2006;6(1):74–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Baldwin K, Huber J. Economic versus cultural differences: forms of ethnic diversity and public goods provision. Am Polit Sci Rev. 2010;104(4):644.
Barth F. Ethnic groups and boundaries. Boston: Little, Brown; 1969.Google Scholar
Birnir J. Divergence in diversity? The dissimilar effects of cleavages on electoral politics in new democracies. Am J Polit Sci. 2007;51(3):602–19.
Bossert W, D'Ambrosio C, et al. A generalized index of fractionalization. Economica. 2010;78(312):723–750
Brady H, Kaplan CS. Conceptualizing and measuring ethnic identity. In Herrera et al, editors Measuring identity: a guide for social scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.
Brass PR. The Punjab crisis and the unity of India. In: Kohli A, editor. India's democracy: an analysis of changing state-society relations. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 1990.Google Scholar
Brass PR. Language, religion, and politics in North India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1974.
Brewer MB, Kramer RM. Choice behavior in social dilemmas: effects of social identity, group size, and decision framing. J Personal Soc Psychol. 1986;50(3):543–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Brubaker R. Ethnicity without groups. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2004.
Cederman L-E, Girardin L. Beyond fractionalization: mapping ethnicity onto nationalist insurgencies. Am Polit Sci Rev 2007;101(1):173–85.
Cederman L-E, Min B, Wimmer A. Ethnic power relations dataset. http://hdl.handle.net/1902.1/11796
UNF:5:k4xxXC2ASI204QZ4jqvUrQ== V1(May 2, 2009); 2009.
Cederman L-E, Weidman N, Gleditsch K. Horizontal inequalities and ethnonationalist civil war: a global comparison. Am Polit Sci Rev 2011;105(3): 478–95.
Chandra K. Why ethnic parties succeed. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
Chandra K. What is Ethnicity and does it matter? Annu Rev Pol Sci. 2006;9:397–424
Chandra K. Why voters in patronage-democracies split their tickets: strategic voting for ethnic parties in patronage-democracies. Elect Stud. 2009;28:21–32
Chandra K, Wilkinson S. Measuring the effect of “ethnicity”. Comp Polit Stud. 2008;41(4–5):515–63.
Dallaire R. Shake hands with the devil: the failure of humanity in Rwanda. New York: Carroll & Graf; 2005.
Destexhe A. Rwanda and genocide in the twentieth century. London: Pluto Press; 1995.
Dirks N. Castes of mind: colonialism and the making of modern India. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2001.
Dudley-Jenkins L. Identity and identification in India: defining the disadvantaged. Hove: Psychology Press; 2003.
Dunning T. Do quotas promote ethnic solidarity? Field and natural experimental evidence from India. New Haven: Yale University; 2010.Google Scholar
Dunning T, Harrison L. Cross-cutting cleavages and ethnic voting: an experimental study of cousinage in Mali. Am Polit Sci Rev. 2010;104(1):21–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Easterly W, Levine R. Africa’s growth tragedy: policies and ethnic divisions. Q J Econ. 1997;112:1202–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Esteban J-M, Ray D. On the measurement of polarization. Econometrica. 1994;62(4):819–51
Fearon J. Ethnic and cultural diversity by country. J Econ Growth. 2003;8:195–222.
Fish MS, Brooks RS. Does diversity hurt democracy? J Democr. 2004;15(1):154–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Fox RG. Lions of the Punjab: culture in the making. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1985.Google Scholar
Galvan D. Joking kinship as a syncretic institution. Cahiers d'Etudes Afr. 2006;XLVI(4):183–4.Google Scholar
Gibson JL, Gouws A. Overcoming intolerance in South Africa: experiments in democratic persuasion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2003.Google Scholar
Gilens M. Why Americans hate welfare: race, media, and the politics of antipoverty policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1999.Google Scholar
Gourevitch P. We wish to inform you that tomorrow we will be killed with our families: stories from Rwanda. New York, Farrar, Straus, and Giroux; 1998.
Gurr TR. People versus states: minorities at risk in the new century. Africa Today. Washington: United States Institute of Peace Press; 2000.
Habyarimana J, Humphreys M, Posner D, Weinstein J. Coethnicity: diversity and the dilemmas of collective action. Russell Sage Foundation; 2009.
Hechter M. Group formation and the cultural division of labour. Am J Sociol. 1978;84:293–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Helmuth C. Culture and customs of Costa Rica. Westport: Greenwood Press; 2000.Google Scholar
Herath R. Sri Lankan ethnic crisis: towards a resolution. Trafford on Demand Pub. 2002.
Horowitz D. Ethnic groups in conflict. Berkeley: University of California Press; 1985.Google Scholar
Jensen C, Skaaning SE. Democracy, ethnic fractionalization, and the politics of social spending. Department of Political Science, Aarhus University. 2010.
Kabashima I, et al. Neural correlates of attitude change following positive and negative advertisements. Front Behav Neurosci. 2009;3:6.
Kalyvas SN. The ontology of political violence: action and identity in civil wars. Perspect Polit. 2003;1:475–94.Google Scholar
Kertzer DI, Arel D, editors. Census and identity: the politics of race, ethnicity, and language in national censuses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002.Google Scholar
Kohli A, Basu A. Community conflicts and the state in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
Laitin D. Hegemony and culture: politics and religious change among the Yoruba. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 1986.Google Scholar
Laitin D, Fearon J. Ethnicity, insurgency, and civil war. Am Polit Sci Rev. 2003;97(1):75–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Lamont M, Molnár V. The study of boundaries in the social sciences. Annu Rev Sociol 2002;28:167–95.
LaPorta R, Lopez-de-Silanes F, Shleifer A, Vishny R. The quality of government. J Law Econ Organ. 1999;15:222–79.
Lee T. Between social theory and social science practice: toward a new approach to the survey measurement of “race”. In: Abdelal R, Herrera YM, Johnston AI, McDermott R, editors. Measuring Identity: A Guide for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
Lieberman ES. Boundaries of contagion: how ethnic politics have shaped government responses to AIDS. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
Longman T. Identity cards, ethnic self-perception and genocide in Rwanda. In: Caplan J and Torpey J, editors. Documenting individual identity: the development of state practices in the modern world. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2001.
Mahapatra D. SC had hinted at possible caste war. The Times of India 2007.
Mamdani M. When victims become killers: colonialism, nativism, and the genocide in Rwanda. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
Marx A. Making race and nation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 1998.Google Scholar
Matuszeski J, Schneider F. Patterns of ethnic group segregation and civil conflict. Harvard University, Working Paper; 2006.
Mendelberg T. The race card: campaign strategy, implicit messages, and the norm of equality. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2001.Google Scholar
Miguel E, Gugerty MK. Ethnic diversity, social sanctions, and public goods in Kenya. J Public Econ. 2005;89(11–12):2325–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Misra S. A narrative of communal politics: Uttar Pradesh, 1937–39. Thousand Oaks: Sage; 2001.Google Scholar
Montalvo JG, Reynal-Querol M. Ethnic polarization, potential conflict and civil war. Am Econ Rev. 2005;95(3):796–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Morning A. Ethnic classification in global perspective: a cross-national survey of the 2000 Census round. Popul Res Policy Rev. 2008;27:239–72.
Mozaffar S, Scarritt JR, et al. Electoral institutions, ethnopolitical cleavages, and party systems in Africa’s emerging democracies. Am Polit Sci Rev. 2003;97:379–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nigam, A. The rumor of Maoism. Seminar. 2010;607.
Nobles M. Shades of citizenship: race and the census in modern politics. Stanford: Stanford University Press; 2000.Google Scholar
Ostby G. Polarization, horizontal inequalities and violent civil conflict. J Peace Res. 2008;45(2):143–62.
Petersen RD. Understanding ethnic violence: fear, hatred, and resentment in twentieth-century Eastern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner D. The colonial origins of ethnic cleavages: the case of linguistic divisions in Zambia. Comp Polit. 2003;35(2):127–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Posner D. Measuring ethnic fractionalization in Africa. Am J Polit Sci. 2004;48(4):849–63.
Purcell T, Sawyers K. Democracy and ethnic conflict: blacks in Costa Rica. Ethnic Racial Stud. 1993;16:298–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Rabushka A, Shepsle KA. Politics in plural societies: a theory of democratic instability. New York: Longman; 1972.
Rajasingham KT. Sri Lanka: the untold story. Asia Times Online. 2001.
Reynal-Querol M. Ethnicity, political systems and civil wars. J Confl Resolut. 2002;46(1):29–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Roeder PG. Ethnolinguistic Fractionalization (ELF) indices, 1961 and 1985. 2001.
Sambanis N. Do ethnic and non-ethnic civil wars have the same causes?: a theoretical and empirical inquiry (part I). Washington: World Bank; 2001.
Selway JS. The measurement of cross-cutting cleavages and other multidimensional cleavage structures. Polit Anal. 2011;19(1):48–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Simmel G. Conflict and the web of group-affiliations. Gelncoe: Free Press; 1955.Google Scholar
Smith AD. Ethnicity and nationalism. Leiden: E.J. Brill; 1992.Google Scholar
Sowell T. Affirmative action around the world: an empirical study. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
Sylvan DA, Metskas AK. Trade-offs in measuring identities: a comparison of five approaches. In: Abdelal R, Herrera YM, Johnston AI, McDermott R, editors. Measuring Identity: A Guide for Social Scientists. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2009.Google Scholar
Tajfel H, Turner JC. The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In: Worchel S, Austin WG, editors. The psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 7–24). Chicago: Nelson Hall; 1986.
Telles EE. Race in another America: the significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2004.Google Scholar
Tilly C. Identities, boundaries, and social ties. Boulder: Paradigm; 2005.Google Scholar
Torpey J. The invention of the passport. Surveillance, Citizenship and the State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Pressp; 2000.
Turra C, Venturi G, editors. Racismo cordial. São Paulo: Editora Ática; 1995.Google Scholar
Uvin P. On counting, categorizing, and violence in Burundi and Rwanda. In: Kertzer DI, Arel D, editors. Census and identity: the politics of race, ethnicity, and language in national censuses. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2002. p. 148–75.Google Scholar
VanCott DL. From movements to parties in Latin America: the evolution of ethnic politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Varshney A. Ethnic conflict and civic life: Hindus and Muslims in India. New Haven: Yale University Press; 2002.Google Scholar
Varshney A. Nationalism, ethnic conflict, and rationality. Perspect Polit. 2003;1:85–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Westen D, Blagov PS, et al. Neural bases of motivated reasoning: an fMRI study of emotional constraints on partisan political judgment in the 2004 U.S. Presidential Election. J Cogn Neurosci. 2006;18(11):1947–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson S. Votes and violence: electoral competition and ethnic riots in India. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Wilkinson S. Which group identities lead to most violence? Evidence from India. In: Kalyvas SN, Shapiro I, Masoud T, editors. Order, conflict, and violence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008.
Wimmer A, Cederman L-E, Min, B. Ethnic politics and armed conflict: a configurational analysis of a new global data set. Am Sociol Rev. 2009;74(April):316–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Witte EH, Davis JH. Understanding group behavior, Vol. 2: small group processes and interpersonal relations. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum; 1996.Google Scholar
Yadav Y, Kumar S. Poor man’s rainbow over UP. New Delhi: Indian Express; 2007.Google Scholar
Yashar DJ. Contesting citizenship in Latin America: the rise of indigenous movements and the postliberal challenge. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young C. Nationalism, ethnicity, and class in Africa: a retrospective. Cahiers D'Etudes Afr. 1986;26(3):421–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Young C. The African colonial state in comparative perspective. New Haven: Yale University Press; 1994.