A proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism
Purchase on Springer.com
$39.95 / €34.95 / £29.95*
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.
The study of reciprocal altruism, or the exchange of goods and services between individuals, requires attention to both evolutionary explanations and proximate mechanisms. Evolutionary explanations have been debated at length, but far less is known about the proximate mechanisms of reciprocity. Our own research has focused on the immediate causes and contingencies underlying services such as food sharing, grooming, and cooperation in brown capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees. Employing both observational and experimental techniques, we have come to distinguish three types of reciprocity. Symmetry-based reciprocity is cognitively the least complex form, based on symmetries inherent in dyadic relationships (e.g., mutual association, kinship). Attitudinal reciprocity, which is more cognitively complex, is based on the mirroring of social attitudes between partners and is exhibited by both capuchin monkeys and chimpanzees. Finally, calculated reciprocity, the most cognitively advanced form, is based on mental scorekeeping and is found only in humans and possibly chimpanzees.
- Bercovitch, F. B. 1988 Coalitions, Cooperation and Reproductive Tactics among Adult Male Baboons. Animal Behavior 36:1198–1209. CrossRef
- Blurton Jones, N. G. 1987 Tolerated Theft: Suggestions about the Ecology and Evolution of Sharing, Hoarding and Scrounging. Social Science Information 26:31–54. CrossRef
- Boesch, C. 1994 Cooperative Hunting in Wild Chimpanzees. Animal Behavior 48:653–667. CrossRef
- Boesch, C., and H. Boesch 1989 Hunting Behavior of Wild Chimpanzees in the Taï National Park. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 75:547–573. CrossRef
- Boyd, R. 1992 The Evolution of Reciprocity When Conditions Vary. In Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals, A. H. Harcourt and F. B. M. de Waal, eds. Pp. 493–510. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Chalmeau, R. 1994 Do Chimpanzees Cooperate in a Learning Task? Primates 35:385–392. CrossRef
- Chalmeau, R., and A. Gallo 1996 What Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Learn in Cooperative Task. Primales 37:39–47. CrossRef
- Chalmeau, R., E. Visalberghi, and A. Gallo 1997 Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella) Fail to Understand a Cooperative Task. Animal Behavior 54:1215–1225. CrossRef
- Chalmeau, R., K. Lardeux, P. Brandibas, and A. Gallo 1997 Cooperative Problem Solving by Orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). International Journal of Primatology 18:23–32. CrossRef
- Clements, K. C., and D. W. Stephens 1995 Testing Models of Non-kin Cooperation: Mutualism and the Prisoner’s Dilemma. Animal Behavior 50:527–535. CrossRef
- Connor, R. C. 1986 Pseudo-reciprocity: Investing in Mutualism. Animal Behavior 34:1562–1584. CrossRef
- 1995 Impala Allogrooming and the Parceling Model of Reciprocity. Animal Behavior 49:528–530. CrossRef
- Crawford, M. 1937 The Cooperative Solving of Problems by Young Chimpanzees. Comparative Psychology Monographs 14:1–88.
- de Waal, F. B. M. 1982 Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
- 1989 Food Sharing and Reciprocal Obligations among Chimpanzees. Journal of Human Evolution 18:433–459. CrossRef
- 1997a The Chimpanzee’s Service Economy: Food for Grooming. Evolution and Human Behavior 18:375–386. CrossRef
- 1997b Food Transfers Through Mesh in Brown Capuchins. Journal of Comparative Psychology 111:370–378. CrossRef
- 2000 Attitudinal Reciprocity in Food Sharing among Brown Capuchin Monkeys. Animal Behavior 60:253–361. CrossRef
- de Waal, F. B. M., and M. L. Berger 2000 Payment for Labour in Monkeys. Nature 404:563. CrossRef
- de Waal, F. B. M., and L. M. Luttrell 1988 Mechanisms of Social Reciprocity in Three Primate Species: Symmetrical Relationship Characteristics or Cognition? Ethology and Sociobiology 9:101–118. CrossRef
- de Waal, F. B. M., and D. Yoshihara 1983 Reconciliation and Redirected Affection in Rhesus Monkeys. Behaviour 85:224–241.
- de Waal, F. B. M., L. M. Luttrell, and M. E. Canfield 1993 Preliminary Data on Voluntary Food Sharing in Brown Capuchin Monkeys. American Journal of Primatology 29:73–78. CrossRef
- Dugatkin, L. A. 1988 Do Guppies Play Tit for Tat during Predator Inspection Visits? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 23:395–399. CrossRef
- 1991 Dynamics of the Tit-for-Tat Strategy during Predator Inspection in the Guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 29:127–132. CrossRef
- 1997 Cooperation among Animals: An Evolutionary Perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.
- 1998 Game Theory and Cooperation. In Game Theory and Animal Behavior, L. A. Dugatkin and H. K. Reeve, eds. Pp. 38–63. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Dugatkin, L. A., and M. Alfieri 1991 Guppies and the Tit-for-Tat Strategy: Preference Based on Past Interaction. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28:243–246. CrossRef
- Dugatkin, L. A., and D. S. Wilson 2000 Assortative Interactions and the Evolution of Cooperation during Predator Inspection in Guppies (Poecilia reticulata). Evolutionary Ecology Research 2:761–767.
- Feistner, A. T. C., and W. C. McGrew 1989 Food-sharing in Primates: A Critical Review. In Perspectives in Primate Biology, vol. 3, P. K. Seth and S. Seth, eds. Pp. 21–36. New Delhi: Today and Tomorrow’s Printers.
- Fragaszy, D. M., and L. E. Adams-Curtis 1991 Generative Aspects of Manipulation in Tufted Capuchin Monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology 105:387–397. CrossRef
- Hamilton, W. D. 1964 The Genetical Evolution of Social Behavior, I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 7:1–52. CrossRef
- Harcourt, A. H., and F. B. M. de Waal 1992 Cooperation in Conflict: From Ants to Anthropoids. In Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals, A. H. Harcourt and F. B. M. de Waal, eds. Pp. 493–510. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Hart, B. L., and L. A. Hart 1992 Reciprocal Allogrooming in Impala, Aepyceros melampus. Animal Behavior 44:1073–1083. CrossRef
- Hayes, E. C. 1925 Some Social Relations Restated. American Journal of Sociology 31:333–346. CrossRef
- Hemelrijk, C. K. 1990a A Matrix Partial Correlation Test Used in Investigations of Reciprocity and Other Social Interaction Patterns at Group Level. Journal of Theoretical Biology 143:405–420.
- 1990b Models of, and Tests for, Reciprocity, Unidirectionality and Other Social Interactions Patterns at a Group Level. Animal Behavior 39:1013–1029. CrossRef
- 1994 Support for Being Groomed in Long-tailed Macaques, Macaca fascicularis. Animal Behavior 48:479–481. CrossRef
- Huntingford, F. A., J. Lazarus, B. D. Barrie, and S. Webb 1994 A Dynamic Analysis of Cooperative Predator Inspection in Sticklebacks. Animal Behavior 47:413–423. CrossRef
- Koenig, W. D. 1988 Reciprocal Altruism in Birds: A Critical Review. Ethology and Sociobiology 9:73–84. CrossRef
- Magurran, A. E., and A. Higham 1988 Information Transfer across Fish Shoals under Predator Threat. Ethology 78:153–158. CrossRef
- Mendres, K. A., and F. B. M. de Waal 2000 Capuchins Do Cooperate: The Advantage of an Intuitive Task. Animal Behavior 60:523–529. CrossRef
- Milinski, M. 1987 Tit-for-tat in Sticklebacks and the Evolution of Cooperation. Nature 325:433–435. CrossRef
- Milinski, M., D. Pfluger, D. Kulling, and R. Kettler 1990 Do Sticklebacks Cooperate Repeatedly in Reciprocal Pairs? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27:17–21. CrossRef
- Noë, R. 1990 A Veto Game Played by Baboons: A Challenge to the Use of the Prisoner’s Dilemma as a Paradigm for Reciprocity and Cooperation. Animal Behavior 39:78–90. CrossRef
- Noë, R., and Peter Hammerstein 1991 Biological Markets. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:336–339. CrossRef
- 1994 Biological Markets: Supply and Demand Determine the Effect of Partner Choice in Cooperation, Mutualism and Mating. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 35:1–11.
- Roberts, G., and T. N. Sherratt 1998 Development of Cooperative Relationships Through Increasing Investment. Nature 394:175–179. CrossRef
- Seyfarth, R. M. 1980 The Distribution of Grooming and Related Behaviours among Adult Female Vervet Monkeys. Animal Behavior 28:798–813. CrossRef
- Seyfarth, R. M., and D. L. Cheney 1984 Grooming, Alliances, and Reciprocal Altruism in Vervet Monkeys. Nature 308:541–543. CrossRef
- 1988 Empirical Tests of Reciprocity Theory: Problems in Assessment. Ethology and Sociobiology 9:181–187. CrossRef
- Stamps, J. A. 1991 Why Evolutionary Issues Are Reviving an Interest in Proximate Behavioral Mechanisms. American Zoologist 31:338–348.
- Tebbich, S., M. Taborsky, and H. Winkler 1996 Social Manipulation Causes Cooperation in Keas. Animal Behavior 52:1–10. CrossRef
- Trivers, R. L. 1971 The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. Quarterly Review of Biology 46:35–57. CrossRef
- Wilkinson, G. S. 1984 Reciprocal Food Sharing in the Vampire Bat. Nature 308:181–184. CrossRef
- 1988 Reciprocal Altruism in Bats and Other Mammals. Ethology and Sociobiology 9:85–100. CrossRef
- A proximate perspective on reciprocal altruism
Volume 13, Issue 1 , pp 129-152
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- Capuchin monkeys
- Food sharing
- Primate grooming
- Proximate mechanisms
- Reciprocal altruism