Clinical Brief

The Indian Journal of Pediatrics

, Volume 80, Issue 4, pp 340-342

HIV Genotype Resistance Testing in Antiretroviral (ART) Exposed Indian Children—A Need of the Hour

  • Ira ShahAffiliated withPediatric HIV Clinic, B.J.Wadia Hospital for Children Email author 
  • , Shefali ParikhAffiliated withPediatric HIV Clinic, B.J.Wadia Hospital for Children

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Abstract

Development of drug resistance in HIV infected children with treatment failure is a major impediment to selection of appropriate therapy. HIV genotype resistance assays predict drug resistance on the basis of mutations in the viral genome. However, their clinical utility, especially in a resource limited setting is still a subject of debate. The authors report two cases in which both the children suffered from treatment failure of various antiretroviral therapy regimes. In both the cases, Genotype Resistance Testing (GRT) prompted a radical change from proposed failure therapy as per existing guidelines. GRT was specifically important for the selection of a new dual Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) component of failure regimen by identifying TAMS and M184V mutations in the HIV genome. These case reports highlight the importance of GRT in children failing multiple antiretroviral regimes; and emphasizes the need to recognize situations where GRT is absolutely essential to guide appropriate therapy, even in a resource limited setting.

Keywords

HIV Children Genotype resistance testing India