, Volume 79, Issue 2, pp 218-223

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Ventilated with Continuous Positive Airway Pressure vs. Mechanical Ventilation

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Abstract

Objective

To compare continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) vs. traditional mechanical ventilation (MV) at 24 h of age as predictors of neurodevelopmental (ND) outcomes in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants at 18–22 months corrected gestational age (CGA).

Methods

Infants ≤1000 g birth weight born from January 2000 through December 2006 at two hospitals at the Cincinnati site of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network were evaluated comparing CPAP (n = 198) vs. MV (n = 109). Primary outcomes included the Bayley Score of Infant Development Version II (BSID-II), presence of deafness, blindness, cerebral palsy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and death.

Results

Ventilatory groups were similar in gender, rates of preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, antepartum hemorrhage, use of antenatal antibiotics, steroids, and tocolytics. Infants receiving CPAP weighed more, were older, were more likely to be non-Caucasian and from a singleton pregnancy. Infants receiving CPAP had better BSID-II scores, and lower rates of BPD and death.

Conclusions

After adjusting for acuity differences, ventilatory strategy at 24 h of age independently predicts long-term neurodevelopmental outcome in ELBW infants.