, Volume 77, Issue 11, pp 1296-1302
Date: 04 Sep 2010

Management of Acute Lung Injury/ARDS

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Acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are disorders of pulmonary inflammation characterized by hypoxemia and respiratory failure. Children have varying incidence of ALI/ARDS from 2.2 to 16 per 100,000 pediatric population associated with high morbidity, mortality, and financial burden. The diagnostic criteria include: acute onset, severe arterial hypoxemia resistant to oxygen therapy alone (PaO2/FIO2 ratio ≤200 for ARDS and ≤300 for ALI), diffuse pulmonary inflammation (bilateral infiltrates on chest radiograph) and No evidence of left atrial hypertension. Management includes ventilatory therapy including lower tidal volume, relatively high PEEP and supportive care. Guidelines for diagnosis, ventilator management, rescue therapies and supportive care are being discussed in the protocol.