Date: 04 Sep 2009
Swine origin influenza (swine flu)
Rent the article at a discountRent now
* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.Get Access
Swine origin influenza was first recognized in the border area of Mexico and United States in April 2009 and during a short span of two months became the first pandemic. The currently circulating strain of swine origin influenza virus of the H1N1 strain has undergone triple reassortment and contains genes from the avian, swine and human viruses. It is transmitted by droplets or fomites. Incubation period is 2 to 7 days. Common clinical symptoms are indistinguishable by any viral respiratory illness, and include fever, cough, sore throat and myalgia. A feature seen more frequently with swine origin influenza is GI upset. Less than 10% of patients require hospitalization. Patients at risk of developing severe disease are - younger than five years, elderly, pregnant women, with chronic systemic illnesses, adolescents on aspirin. Of the severe manifestations of swine origin influenza, pneumonia and respiratory failure are the most common. Unusual symptoms reported are conjunctivitis, parotitis, hemophagocytic syndrome. Infants may present with fever and lethargy with no respiratory symptoms. Diagnosis is based on RT PCR, Viral culture or increasing neutralizing antibodies. Principle of treatment consist of isolation, universal precautions, good infection control practices, supportive care and use of antiviral drugs. Antiviral drugs effective against H1N1 virus include: oseltamivir and zamanavir. With good supportive care case fatality is less than 1%. Preventive measures include: social distancing, practicing respiratory etiquette, hand hygiene and use of chemoprohylaxis with antiviral drugs. Vaccine against H1N1 is not available at present, but will be available in near future.
Kilbourne ED. Influenza pandemics of the 20th century. Emerging Infect Dis 2006; 12: 9–14.PubMed
Taubenberger JK. The origin and virulence of the 1918 “Spanish” influenza virus. Proc Am Philos Soc 2006; 150: 86–112.PubMed
Laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 as officially reported to WHO by States Parties to the IHR (2005) as on 6 August 2009. World Health Organisation: Global alert and response. 12 Aug 2009. http://www.who.int/csr/don/2009_08_12/en/index.html.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Novel H1N1 Flu: Facts and Figures. http://cdc.gov/h1n1flu/surveillanceqa.htm
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. Government of India. Influenza A [H1N1] - Status as on 17th August, 2009. http://mohfw.nic.in/Status%20as%20on%2017th%20August%202009.doc
Dolin R. Influenza. In, Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson LJ (Eds). Harrisson’s principles of internal medicine. McGraw Hill 2005. Pp 1066–1070.
Glezen WP. Influenza viruses. In: Feigin RD, Cherry JD, Demmler GJ, Kaplan SL, eds. Textbook of Pediatric Infectious Diseases. Saunders. Philadelphia, 2004; 2024–2040.
Interim guidance on antiviral recommendations for patients with novel Influenza A (H1N1) virus infection and their close contacts. Centre for disease control and prevention:H1N1 guidance 6 May 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/recommendations.htm.
Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Swine Flu- Clinical Management Protocol and Infection Control Guidelines. http://mohfw.nic.in/Clinical%20Management-Swine%20Flu.doc
Sreta D, Kedkovid R, Tuamsang S, Kitikoon P, Thanawongnuwech R. Pathogenesis of swine influenza virus (Thai isolates) in weanling pigs: an experimental trial. Virology J 2009; 6: 34.CrossRef
Novel Swine-Origin Influenza A (H1N1) Virus Investigation Team. Emergence of a novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus in humans. NEJM 2009; 360: 2605–2615.
Perez-Padilla R, de la Rosa-Zamboni D, de Leon SP, et al for the INER Working Group on Influenza. Pneumonia and respiratory failure from swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) in Mexico. NEJM 2009; 361
Clinical management of human infection with new influenza A (H1N1) virus: initial guidance. World Health Organisation: Global alert and response. 21 May 2009. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/clinical_management/en/index.html
Hayase Y, Tobita K. Influenza virus and neurological disease. Psych Cin Neurosc 2008; 51: 181–184.CrossRef
Poser CM. Neurological complications of swine influenza vaccine. Acta Neurol Scan 1981; 44: 413–431.
Interim WHO guidance for the surveillance of human infection with swine influenza A(H1N1) virus. World Health Organisation: Global alert and response. 10 July 2009. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/interim_guidance/en/index.html.
Anonymous. Evaluation of Rapid Influenza Diagnostic Tests for Detection of Novel Influenza A (H1N1) Virus - United States, 2009. MMWR 2009: 58; 826–829.
Mossong J, Opp M, Gerloff N, et al. Emergence of oseltamivir-resistant influenza A H1N1 virus during the 2007–2008 winter season in Luxembourg: clinical characteristics and epidemiology. Antiviral Res 2009 Aug 6. [Epub ahead of print]
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Novel H1N1 Vaccination Recommendations. http://cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/acip.htm
Advice on the use of masks in the community setting in Influenza A (H1N1) outbreaks. World Health Organisation: Global alert and response. 3 May 2009. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/Adviceusemasks community revised.pdf
Pandemic influenza prevention and mitigation in low resource communities. World Health Organisation: Global alert and response. 2 May 2009. http://www.who.int/csr/resources/publications/swineflu/low_resource_measures/en/index.html
- Swine origin influenza (swine flu)
The Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Volume 76, Issue 8 , pp 833-841
- Cover Date
- Print ISSN
- Online ISSN
- Additional Links
- H1N1 influenza
- Swine flu
- Swine origin H1N1 influenza
- Industry Sectors