Clinical Characteristics of Biofilms in Patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis: A Prospective Case–Control Study
Recent studies have indicated that biofilms are involved in the pathogenesis of recurrent and recalcitrant chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). The present study was performed to evaluate the presence of biofilms and to evaluate the relationships between the presence of biofilms and clinical features of CRS. A total of 33 patients were included in this study. Maxillary sinus mucosa from 26 CRS patients and the ethmoid mucosa from 7 patients undergoing septoplasty were collected. Biofilms were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. Preoperative symptom scores, preoperative and intraoperative nasoendoscopic findings, and postoperative healing period were compared between the groups. Biofilms were detected in 14 (42.4 %) of the 33 patients. Biofilms were present in 13 (50 %) of the 26 patients in the CRS group, but in only one (14.3 %) of the seven patients in the control group. There were no significant differences in preoperative symptom scores or preoperative nasal Lund–Kennedy endoscopic scores between the groups. However, the average Lund–Mackay and intraoperative sinus Lund–Kennedy endoscopic scores were significantly higher in biofilm-positive than biofilm-negative patients (P < 0.05). In the follow-up period, the healing time was significantly longer in biofilm-positive than biofilm-negative patients (P < 0.05). This study suggested that the presence of bacterial biofilms may contribute to the pathogenesis of CRS and the clinical characteristics of CRS patients after endoscopic sinus surgery.