Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 473–484

Hormonal regulation of gluconeogenic gene transcription in the liver

Review

DOI: 10.1007/s12038-010-0052-0

Cite this article as:
Yabaluri, N. & Bashyam, M.D. J Biosci (2010) 35: 473. doi:10.1007/s12038-010-0052-0

Abstract

Glucose homeostasis in mammals is achieved by the actions of counterregulatory hormones, namely insulin, glucagon and glucocorticoids. Glucose levels in the circulation are regulated by the liver, the metabolic centre which produces glucose when it is scarce in the blood. This process is catalysed by two rate-limiting enzymes, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) whose gene expression is regulated by hormones. Hormone response units (HRUs) present in the two genes integrate signals from various signalling pathways triggered by hormones. How such domains are arranged in the regulatory region of these two genes, how this complex regulation is accomplished and the latest advancements in the field are discussed in this review.

Keywords

Glucagon glucocorticoids gluconeogenesis hormone insulin receptor transcription 

Abbreviations used

AF

accessory factor element

C/EBP

CAAT-enhancer binding protein

cAMP

cyclic AMP

CBP

CREB-binding protein

CEBPβ

CAAT-enhancer binding protein β

COUP-TF

chicken ovalbumin upstream transcription factor

CRE

cyclic AMP response element

CREB

cyclic AMP response element binding protein

dAF

distant accessory factor element

G6Pase

glucose-6-phosphatase

GRE

glucocorticoid response element

GR-G

glucocorticoid receptor — glucocorticoid

HNF-1

hepatic nuclear factor 1

HNF-3 β

hepatic nuclear factor 3β

HNF-4α

hepatic nuclear factor 4α

HRU

hormone response unit

NF-1

nuclear factor 1

PEPCK

phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase

PGC-1α

peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor —γ coactivator-1α

PPARα

peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α

RARE

retinoic acid response element

RAR-RXR

retinoic acid receptor-retinoid receptor

SRE

SREBP response element

SREBP

sterol response element-binding protein

TORC2

transducer of regulated CREB activity 2

TRE

thyroid response element

TR-T3

thyroid receptor-thyroid hormone

TSS

transcription start site

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for DNA Fingerprinting and DiagnosticsTuljaguda complexNampally, HyderabadIndia