Journal of Biosciences

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 217–230

Activated charcoal filter effectively reduces p-benzosemiquinone from the mainstream cigarette smoke and prevents emphysema

  • Neekkan Dey
  • Archita Das
  • Arunava Ghosh
  • Indu B. Chatterjee
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12038-010-0026-2

Cite this article as:
Dey, N., Das, A., Ghosh, A. et al. J Biosci (2010) 35: 217. doi:10.1007/s12038-010-0026-2

Abstract

In this paper, we have made a comparative evaluation of the cytotoxicity and pathophysiological effects of mainstream smoke from cellulose acetate (CA)-filtered cigarettes with that of charcoal-filtered cigarettes developed in our laboratory. Previously, we had demonstrated that the mainstream smoke from an Indian CA-filtered commercial cigarette contains p-benzosemiquinone (p-BSQ), a major, highly toxic, long-lived water-soluble radical. Here, we have examined 16 brands of different CA-filtered cigarettes including Kentucky research cigarettes, and observed that mainstream smoke from all the cigarettes contains substantial amounts of p-BSQ (100–200 µg/cigarette). We also show that when the CA filter is replaced by a charcoal filter, the amount of p-BSQ in the mainstream smoke is reduced by 73–80%, which is accompanied by a reduction of carbonyl formation in bovine serum albumin to the extent of 70–90%. The charcoal filter also prevented cytotoxicity in A549 cells as evidenced by MTT assay, apoptosis as evidenced by FACS analysis, TUNEL assay, overexpression of Bax, activation of p53 and caspase 3, as well as emphysematous lung damage in a guinea pig model as seen by histology and morphometric analysis. The results indicate that the charcoal filter developed in our laboratory may protect smokers from cigarette smoke-induced cytotoxity, protein modification, apoptosis and emphysema.

Keywords

Apoptosis charcoal filter cigarette smoke emphysema p-benzosemiquinone 

Abbreviations used

AECS

aqueous extract of cigarette smoke

BSA

bovine serum albumin

CA-filter

cellulose acetate filter

CF

charcoalfiltered

COPD

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

CS

cigarette smoke

DAPI

4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride

DI

destructive index

DMSO

dimethyl sulphoxide

ESR

electron spin resonance

H&E

haematoxylin-eosin

HPLC

high performance liquid chromatography

HRP

horseradish peroxidase

Lm

mean linear intercept

MTT

3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide

NMR

nuclear magnetic resonance

PAH

polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

PI

propidium iodide

PS

phosphatidyl serine

TLC

thin-layer chromatography

TSNA

tobacco-specific nitrosamines

TUNEL

terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labelling

UV

ultraviolet

VOC

volatile organic compound

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neekkan Dey
    • 1
  • Archita Das
    • 1
  • Arunava Ghosh
    • 1
  • Indu B. Chatterjee
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biotechnology and Dr B C Guha Centre for Genetic Engineering and BiotechnologyUniversity College of ScienceKolkataIndia