Journal of Biosciences

, 33:515

HIV infection in India: Epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and pathogenesis

Authors

  • Samir Lakhashe
    • National AIDS Research Institute
  • Madhuri Thakar
    • National AIDS Research Institute
  • Sheela Godbole
    • National AIDS Research Institute
  • Srikanth Tripathy
    • National AIDS Research Institute
    • National AIDS Research Institute
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12038-008-0070-3

Cite this article as:
Lakhashe, S., Thakar, M., Godbole, S. et al. J Biosci (2008) 33: 515. doi:10.1007/s12038-008-0070-3

Abstract

The year 1986 saw first case of HIV infection as well as first report of AIDS case in India. Since then the epidemic has spread throughout the country. In the recent years there is evidence of epidemic being stabilized with decrease in new infections reported from some parts of the country. The absolute number of HIV infections in the country is expected to be close to 2.5 million and National AIDS Control Programme, phase III is geared to contain the epidemic. HIV viruses circulating in India predominantly belong to HIV-1 subtype C. However, there have been occasional reports of HIV-1 subtype A and B. Matter of concern is reports of A/C and B/C mosaic viruses that are being reported from different parts of the country. The data on HIV drug resistance from India is rather limited. Most of the studies have shown that the virus strains from drug naïve patients do not show significant level of drug resistance mutations. The few immunological studies in Indian patients show that the Indian HIV infected patients show both HIV-specific CTL responses as well as neutralizing antibody response. Mapping of CTL epitopes showed that while Indian patients identify same regions of Gag antigen as recognized by South African subtype C infected patients, some regions are uniquely recognized by Indian patients. There are very few studies on host genetic factors in India in context with HIV infection. However there are evidences reported of association of host genetic factors such as HLA types and haplotypes and HIV disease.

Keywords

EpidemiologyHIVimmunologyIndiasubtypes

Abbreviations used

Ad5

Adenovirus serotype 5

AIDS

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

ANC

antenatal care

ART

anti-retroviral treatment

ARV

anti-retroviral

BRTI

bacterial respiratory tract infections

BSS

behavioural surveillance surveys

CRF

circulating recombinant form

CTL

cytotoxic T-lymphocytes

DC-SIGN

dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 grabbing non-integrin

ELISPOT

enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot

FSW

female sex worker

HIV

human immunodeficiency virus

HIVDR

human immunodeficiency virus drug resistance

HLA

human leucocyte antigen system

IBBA

integrated behavioural and biological assessment

IDU

intra-venous drug user

IFNg

interferon gamma

LTR

long terminal repeats

MSM

men having sex with men

NACO

National AIDS Control Organization

NFHS

National Family Health Survey

NRTI

nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor

NNRTI

non-nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors

PBMC

peripheral blood mononuclear cells

PI

protease inhibitors

PLHIV

people living with HIV

RT

reverse transcriptase

STI

sexually transmitted infections

STD

sexually transmitted diseases

TI

targeted intervention

URF

unique recombinant forms

Copyright information

© Indian Academy of Sciences 2008