Functional Heterogeneity of Arcuate Nucleus Pro-Opiomelanocortin Neurons: Implications for Diverging Melanocortin Pathways
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- Sohn, JW. & Williams, K.W. Mol Neurobiol (2012) 45: 225. doi:10.1007/s12035-012-8240-6
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Arcuate nucleus (ARC) pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are essential regulators of food intake, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis. POMC neurons integrate several key metabolic signals that include neurotransmitters and hormones. The change in activity of POMC neurons is relayed to melanocortin receptors in distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review will summarize the role of leptin and serotonin receptors in regulating the activity of POMC neurons and provide a model in which different melanocortin pathways regulate energy and glucose homeostasis.