Molecular Neurobiology

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 142–159

Neuroprotection by Spice-Derived Nutraceuticals: You Are What You Eat!

  • Ramaswamy Kannappan
  • Subash Chandra Gupta
  • Ji Hye Kim
  • Simone Reuter
  • Bharat Bhushan Aggarwal
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12035-011-8168-2

Cite this article as:
Kannappan, R., Gupta, S.C., Kim, J.H. et al. Mol Neurobiol (2011) 44: 142. doi:10.1007/s12035-011-8168-2

Abstract

Numerous lines of evidence indicate that chronic inflammation plays a major role in the development of various neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, brain tumor, and meningitis. Why these diseases are more common among people from some countries than others is not fully understood, but lifestyle factors have been linked to the development of neurodegenerative diseases. For example, the incidence of certain neurodegenerative diseases among people living in the Asian subcontinent, where people regularly consume spices, is much lower than in countries of the western world. Extensive research over the last 10 years has indicated that nutraceuticals derived from such spices as turmeric, red pepper, black pepper, licorice, clove, ginger, garlic, coriander, and cinnamon target inflammatory pathways, thereby may prevent neurodegenerative diseases. How these nutraceuticals modulate various pathways and how they exert neuroprotection are the focus of this review.

Keywords

Neurodegenerative diseasesNutraceuticalsNeuroprotectionSpicesInflammationAlzheimer’s diseaseParkinson’s disease

Abbreviation

6-OHDA

6-Hydroxydopamine

Abeta

Amyloid beta peptide

AD

Alzheimer’s disease

AGE

Aged garlic extract

BDNF

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor

CCR5

Chemokine receptor type 5

DADS

Di-Allyl-disulfide

Egr-1

Early growth response-1

ERK

Extracellular signal-regulated kinases

fAbeta

Beta-amyloid fibrils

FS

Folliculostellate

iNOS

Inducible nitric oxide synthase

JNK

c-Jun N-terminal kinase

LPS

Lipopolysaccharide

MAPK

Mitogen-activated protein kinase

MCP1

Monocyte chemotactic protein 1

MIP-1β

Macrophage inflammatory protein-1 β

MPP

1-Methyl-4-phenylpyridnium ion

MPTP

1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine

NF-κB

Nuclear factor kappa-B

NTR

Neurotrophin receptor

PD

Parkinson’s disease

PrP

Prion protein

PrP-res

Protease-resistant prion protein

PTCH1

Protein patched homolog 1

ROS

Reactive oxygen species

SAC

S-Allyl-cysteine

Shh

Sonic Hedgehog

TLR

Toll-like receptor

TRAIL

TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand

TSE

Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies

VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ramaswamy Kannappan
    • 1
  • Subash Chandra Gupta
    • 1
  • Ji Hye Kim
    • 1
  • Simone Reuter
    • 1
  • Bharat Bhushan Aggarwal
    • 1
  1. 1.Cytokine Research Laboratory, Department of Experimental TherapeuticsThe University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer CenterHoustonUSA