, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 224-235
Date: 19 Sep 2009

Central Nervous System Regeneration Inhibitors and their Intracellular Substrates

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Abstract

Injury to the central nervous system (CNS) initiates a cascade of responses that is inhibitory to the regeneration of neurons and full recovery. At the site of injury, glial cells conspire with an inhibitory biochemical milieu to construct both physical and chemical barriers that prevent the outgrowth of axons to or beyond the lesion site. These inhibitors include factors derived from myelin, repulsive guidance cues, and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. Each bind receptors on the axon surface to initiating intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately result in cytoskeletal reorganization and growth cone collapse. Here, we present an overview of the molecules, receptors, and signaling pathways that inhibit CNS regeneration, with a particular focus on the intracellular signaling machinery that may function as convergent targets for multiple inhibitory ligands.