Antiangiogenic therapy improves the antitumor effect of adoptive cell immunotherapy by normalizing tumor vasculature
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Shi, S., Chen, L. & Huang, G. Med Oncol (2013) 30: 698. doi:10.1007/s12032-013-0698-1
Abnormal tumor vasculature and subsequent tumor hypoxia contribute to immune tolerance of tumor cells by impeding the homing of cytotoxic T cells into tumor parenchyma and inhibiting their antitumor efficacy. These obstacles might explain why the promising approach of adoptive cell immunotherapy does not exert significant antitumor activity. Hypoxia contributes to immune suppression by activating hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1) and the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway, which plays a determining role in promoting tumor cell growth and survival. Tumor hypoxia creates an immunosuppressive microenvironment via the accumulation and subsequent polarization of inflammatory cells toward immune suppression phenotypes, such as myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and dendritic cells. Antiangiogenic therapy could normalize tumor vasculature and decrease hypoxic tumor area and thus may be an effective modality to potentiate immunotherapy. Adoptive cell immunotherapy alone is not efficient enough to decrease tumor growth as its antitumor effect is inhibited by the immunosuppressive hypoxic tumor microenvironment. This review describes that combination of antiangiogenic therapy with adoptive cell immunotherapy can exert synergistic antitumor effect, which will contribute to improve strategies for future anticancer therapies.