Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 143–151

Risk Factors for Rising Incidence of Esophageal and Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma

Authors

  • Jacquelyn S. Carr
    • Department of SurgeryUniversity of North Carolina
  • Syed F. Zafar
    • Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyEmory University
  • Nabil Saba
    • Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyEmory University
  • Fadlo R. Khuri
    • Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyEmory University
    • Department of Hematology and Medical OncologyEmory University
Review Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12029-013-9480-z

Cite this article as:
Carr, J.S., Zafar, S.F., Saba, N. et al. J Gastrointest Canc (2013) 44: 143. doi:10.1007/s12029-013-9480-z

Abstract

Introduction

In the last 30 years, the incidence of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has steadily increased. The increase in incidence is approximately seven-fold, which is a more substantial increase than that of several malignancies, including melanoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

Discussion

The rising incidence has led to a steady increase in mortality from 2 to 15 deaths per 100,000 in the last three decades. The etiologic factors involved in the development of these malignancies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, acid-suppressive medication use, obesity, and tobacco use. This article discusses the contribution of these etiologic risk factors to this increase in incidence.

Keywords

Esophageal adenocarcinomaRisk factorsGastric cardia adenocarcinoma

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013