, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 143-151
Date: 26 Feb 2013

Risk Factors for Rising Incidence of Esophageal and Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma

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In the last 30 years, the incidence of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has steadily increased. The increase in incidence is approximately seven-fold, which is a more substantial increase than that of several malignancies, including melanoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.


The rising incidence has led to a steady increase in mortality from 2 to 15 deaths per 100,000 in the last three decades. The etiologic factors involved in the development of these malignancies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, acid-suppressive medication use, obesity, and tobacco use. This article discusses the contribution of these etiologic risk factors to this increase in incidence.

Jacquelyn S. Carr and Syed F. Zafar contributed equally to this review.