Risk Factors for Rising Incidence of Esophageal and Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma
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- Carr, J.S., Zafar, S.F., Saba, N. et al. J Gastrointest Canc (2013) 44: 143. doi:10.1007/s12029-013-9480-z
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In the last 30 years, the incidence of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma has steadily increased. The increase in incidence is approximately seven-fold, which is a more substantial increase than that of several malignancies, including melanoma, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.
The rising incidence has led to a steady increase in mortality from 2 to 15 deaths per 100,000 in the last three decades. The etiologic factors involved in the development of these malignancies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett’s esophagus, acid-suppressive medication use, obesity, and tobacco use. This article discusses the contribution of these etiologic risk factors to this increase in incidence.