Neurocritical Care

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 388–394

Treatment of Elevated Intracranial Pressure with Hyperosmolar Therapy in Patients with Renal Failure

  • Karen G. Hirsch
  • Todd Spock
  • Matthew A. Koenig
  • Romergryko G. Geocadin
Original Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12028-012-9676-2

Cite this article as:
Hirsch, K.G., Spock, T., Koenig, M.A. et al. Neurocrit Care (2012) 17: 388. doi:10.1007/s12028-012-9676-2

Abstract

Background

To evaluate the use of hyperosmolar therapy in the management of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP) and transtentorial herniation (TTH) in patients with renal failure and supratentorial lesions.

Methods

Patients with renal failure undergoing renal replacement therapy treated with 23.4% saline (30–60 mL) and/or mannitol for high ICP or clinical evidence of TTH were analyzed in a retrospective cohort.

Results

The primary outcome measure was reversal of TTH or ICP crisis. Secondary outcome measures were modified Rankin scale on hospital discharge, survival to hospital discharge, and adverse effects. Of 254 subjects over 7 years, 6 patients with end-stage renal disease had 11 events. All patients received a 23.4% saline bolus, along with mannitol (91%), hypertonic saline (HS) maintenance fluids (82%), and surgical interventions (n = 2). Reversal occurred in 6/11 events (55%); 2 of 6 patients survived to discharge. ICP recording of 6 TTH events showed a reduction from ICP of 41 ± 3.8 mmHg (mean ± SEM) with TTH to 20.8 ± 3.9 mmHg (p = 0.05) 1 h after the 23.4% saline bolus. Serum sodium increased from 141.4 to 151.1 mmol/L 24 h after 23.4% saline bolus (p = 0.001). No patients were undergoing hemodialysis at the time of the event. There were no cases of pulmonary edema, clinical volume overload, or arrhythmia after HS.

Conclusions

Treatment with hyperosmolar therapy, primarily 23.4% saline solution, was associated with clinical reversal of TTH and reduction in ICP and had few adverse effects in this cohort. Hyperosmolar therapy may be safe and effective in patients with renal failure and these initial findings should be validated in a prospective study.

Keywords

Hypertonic salineIntracranial pressureTranstentorial herniationICPRenal failure

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karen G. Hirsch
    • 1
    • 7
  • Todd Spock
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Matthew A. Koenig
    • 4
    • 5
  • Romergryko G. Geocadin
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of NeurologyThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Department of NeurosurgeryThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA
  3. 3.Department of Anesthesia and Critical Care MedicineThe Johns Hopkins Medical InstitutionsBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of Neurocritical CareThe Queen’s Medical CenterHonoluluUSA
  5. 5.Department of Medicine, The John A. Burns School of MedicineUniversity of HawaiiHonoluluUSA
  6. 6.Division of Neuroscience Critical CareJohns Hopkins University School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA
  7. 7.Division of Neurocritical CareUniversity of California at San FranciscoSan FranciscoUSA