, Volume 15, Issue 2, pp 329-335

Hemodynamic Management of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

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Abstract

Hemodynamic augmentation therapy is considered standard treatment to help prevent and treat vasospasm and delayed cerebral ischemia. Standard triple-H therapy combines volume expansion (hypervolemia), blood pressure augmentation (hypertension), and hemodilution. An electronic literature search was conducted of English-language papers published between 2000 and October 2010 that focused on hemodynamic augmentation therapies in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Among the eligible reports identified, 11 addressed volume expansion, 10 blood pressure management, 4 inotropic therapy, and 12 hemodynamic augmentation in patients with unsecured aneurysms. While hypovolemia should be avoided, hypervolemia did not appear to confer additional benefits over normovolemic therapy, with an excess of side effects occurring in patients treated with hypervolemic targets. Overall, hypertension was associated with higher cerebral blood flow, regardless of volume status (normo- or hypervolemia), with neurological symptom reversal seen in two-thirds of treated patients. Limited data were available for evaluating inotropic agents or hemodynamic augmentation in patients with additional unsecured aneurysms. In the context of sparse data, no incremental risk of aneurysmal rupture has been reported with the induction of hemodynamic augmentation.

Participants in the International Multi-disciplinary Consensus Conference: Michael N. Diringer, Thomas P. Bleck, Nicolas Bruder, E. Sander Connolly, Jr., Giuseppe Citerio, Daryl Gress, Daniel Hanggi, J. Claude Hemphill, III, MAS, Brian Hoh, Giuseppe Lanzino, Peter Le Roux, David Menon, Alejandro Rabinstein, Erich Schmutzhard, Lori Shutter, Nino Stocchetti, Jose Suarez, Miriam Treggiari, MY Tseng, Mervyn Vergouwen, Paul Vespa, Stephan Wolf, and Gregory J. Zipfel.