, Volume 59, Issue 1-3, pp 12-22
Date: 22 May 2014

Toll-like receptors and B cells: functions and mechanisms

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Numerous reports have described Toll-like receptor (TLR) functions in myeloid cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages, but relatively fewer studies have examined TLR responses in B lymphocytes. B cells express a wide variety of TLRs and are highly activated after TLR ligation, leading to enhancements in B cell survival, surface molecule expression, cytokine and antibody production, and antigen presentation. During an immune response, B cells can receive signals through TLRs as well as the B cell antigen receptor (BCR) and/or CD40. TLR ligation synergizes with signals through these receptors and augments both innate and adaptive immune functions of B lymphocytes. Additionally, targeting B cell TLRs may provide new therapies against certain types of cancer as well as autoimmune diseases. Here, we summarize TLR expression and contributions to both normal and pathogenic functions in mouse and human B cells.