Immunologic Research

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 153–161

Immune regulation in the retina

Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12026-009-8146-1

Cite this article as:
Detrick, B. & Hooks, J.J. Immunol Res (2010) 47: 153. doi:10.1007/s12026-009-8146-1

Abstract

Immune reactivity in the retina can be critically important in inflammation and infections, but regulation of this response is essential. The retinal pigment epithelial (RPE), a unique retinal cell, displays a number of essential functions to support the health of the retina. In this review, we highlight how the RPE cell plays a pivotal role in immune defense. The RPE cell orchestrates both innate and adaptive immunity since it expresses TLRs, complement components, MHC class I and II molecules, and serves as an antigen presenting cell. Moreover, both of these immune responses result in the production of a plethora of cytokines, mainly proinflammatory. In order to counteract these inflammatory factors and silence unwanted immune reactivity, the RPE cell also generates suppressive molecules. Recently, chronic immune reactivity has been implicated in a number of retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current evidence suggests that the generation of excessive retinal inflammation may be the consequence of a loss of RPE immunosuppressive factors. Herein, we summarize the varied interactions of the RPE cell with the immune response and highlight how the RPE cell survives and participates in this dynamic environment.

Keywords

RPE IFN-β AMD Retina ECOR 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, School of MedicineJohns Hopkins UniversityBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.Immunology and Virology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye InstituteNIHBethesdaUSA