Original Paper

Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology

, Volume 3, Issue 3, pp 210-216

First online:

Writing impressions revealed by scanners

  • Steven J. StrachAffiliated withForensic Document Services Pty Ltd Email author 

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Heavily impressed writing impressions in paper and impressions in glossy brochures are often difficult or impossible to develop using the electrostatic detection apparatus (ESDA, manufactured by Foster and Freeman). Oblique and specular reflectance lighting can be used but they are time-consuming techniques and not always very successful. This paper briefly describes a scanning and image-processing method for producing excellent images of such writing impressions.


Forensic document examination Writing impressions Scanner Image processing