, Volume 43, Issue 2, pp 249-250
Date: 28 Sep 2012

Role of glycemic variability in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM): still an uphill climb

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Insulin resistance tends to increase in physiological pregnancy because of the gradually rising levels of feto-placental hormones such as progesterone, cortisol, growth hormone, prolactin, and human placental lactogen. In response to this imbalance, the pancreas normally compensates with a higher insulin secretion. When this compensatory mechanism fails, glucose intolerance develops and, in pregnancy, this is called gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) [1]. The resulting maternal hyperglycemia gives rise to a concomitant fetal hyperinsulinemia via the placenta, leading primarily to fetal macrosomia, which is the main cause of well-known complications relating to the fetus’s development (e.g., shoulder dystocia, Erb’s paralysis, hypoxia, and acidosis) and to the course of labor (e.g., perineal laceration, cesarean section) [2].

Clinical evidence has confirmed that the main goal of glycemic management in GDM is to keep the mother’s blood glucose levels as close as possible to the normal ra ...