New Horizons in


, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 58-69

First online:

New understanding and treatments for osteoporosis

  • G. MazziottiAffiliated withDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of BresciaDepartment of Medicine, Endocrine and Bone Unit, Azienda Ospedaliera “Carlo Poma” Email author 
  • , J. BilezikianAffiliated withDepartment of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University
  • , E. CanalisAffiliated withDepartment of Research, Saint Francis Hospital and Medical CenterUniversity of Connecticut School of Medicine
  • , D. CocchiAffiliated withDepartment of Biomedical Sciences and Biotechnologies, University of Brescia
  • , A. GiustinaAffiliated withDepartment of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Brescia

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To summarize promising areas of investigation in osteoporosis and to stimulate further research in this area, as discussed in a recent international conference. Over the recent years, there has been an improvement in the knowledge of molecular pathways involved in bone formation and resorption with the development of new drugs to treat osteoporosis. Intact parathyroid hormone, teriparatide, and anti-sclerostin monoclonal antibody are anabolic drugs, whereas denosumab and odanacatib are anti-resorptive drugs with more reversible effects as compared to bisphosphonates. Anabolic and anti-resorptive agents have different effects on bone, and research in this area includes the efficacy of combination and sequential therapies with them. New insights in the molecular pathways of bone remodeling have clarified the mechanisms responsible for skeletal fragility in several forms of secondary osteoporosis, such as that occurring in type 2 diabetes, following drug exposure and systemic inflammatory diseases. Future research is needed to address the efficacy of anti-osteoporotic drugs in these more recently recognized conditions of skeletal fragility. Osteoporosis continues to be an important field of biomedical research.


Osteoporosis Osteoblasts Osteoclasts PTH RANKL Cathepsin K Sclerostin Diabetes