Original Article

Endocrine

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 472-480

First online:

High serum zinc and serum testosterone levels were associated with excessive erythrocytosis in men at high altitudes

  • Gustavo F. GonzalesAffiliated withLaboratory of Endocrinology and Reproduction, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaInstituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano HerediaUniversidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia Email author 
  • , Vilma TapiaAffiliated withInstituto de Investigaciones de la Altura, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
  • , Manuel GascoAffiliated withLaboratory of Endocrinology and Reproduction, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
  • , Julio RubioAffiliated withLaboratory of Endocrinology and Reproduction, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia
  • , Cynthia Gonzales-CastañedaAffiliated withLaboratory of Endocrinology and Reproduction, Faculty of Sciences and Philosophy, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a lack of adaptation to altitude characterized by excessive erythrocytosis (EE), is a health problem associated with life at high altitude. The erythropoietic process is regulated by both erythropoietin and testosterone. Zinc (Zn) is known to be related with testosterone and hemoglobin levels; meanwhile, nitric oxide was also associated with adaptation to high altitude. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship of hemoglobin and CMS score with serum levels of zinc, total testosterone (TT), calculated free testosterone (cFT), bioavailable testosterone (BAT), hemoglobin, and nitric oxide in men at high altitude with or without EE. Men residing in Lima (150 m) and Cerro de Pasco (4,340 m), Peru, were divided into three groups: (1) low altitude, (2) high altitude without EE (hemoglobin < 21 g/dl), and (3) high altitude with EE (hemoglobin ≥ 21 g/dl). Adjusted multivariable regression models showed that serum testosterone (total or free) and Zn levels were independently correlated with increased hemoglobin levels. Similarly, hemoglobin was positively related with signs/symptoms of CMS; however, both increased the serum Zn and the nitric oxide levels correlated with reduced risk for signs/symptoms of CMS. In conclusion, higher serum testosterone levels and Zn levels were associated with EE, and low scores of signs/symptoms of CMS were associated with higher Zn and nitric oxide levels.

Keywords

Testosterone Zinc Nitric oxide High altitude Chronic mountain sickness signs/symptoms Excessive erythrocytosis