Clinical Reviews in Bone and Mineral Metabolism

, Volume 7, Issue 4, pp 262–268

Immune System and Postmenopausal Bone Loss

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s12018-009-9061-7

Cite this article as:
D’Amelio, P. & Isaia, G.C. Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab (2009) 7: 262. doi:10.1007/s12018-009-9061-7


The relation between immune system, estrogen deficiency and postmenopausal bone loss is an intriguing and yet unexplained challenge of the past two decades. Here we summarize the evidences that link estrogen deficiency, T and B cells proliferation and activation, cytokines production, and bone loss with particular regard to humans.


Estrogen Menopause Osteoclast T cells B cells Cytokines Osteoporosis 

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Surgical and Medical Disciplines, Section of GerontologyUniversity of TorinoTorinoItaly