Immune System and Postmenopausal Bone Loss
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- D’Amelio, P. & Isaia, G.C. Clinic Rev Bone Miner Metab (2009) 7: 262. doi:10.1007/s12018-009-9061-7
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The relation between immune system, estrogen deficiency and postmenopausal bone loss is an intriguing and yet unexplained challenge of the past two decades. Here we summarize the evidences that link estrogen deficiency, T and B cells proliferation and activation, cytokines production, and bone loss with particular regard to humans.