, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 244-261

MicroRNAs: A Light into the “Black Box” of Neuropediatric Diseases?

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Abstract

Although there have been tremendous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric brain diseases in the last few decades, the causes and pathogenesis of these diseases remain to be elucidated. Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) diseases create both short- and long-term impairments and disabilities and are therefore one of the leading causes for emotional, financial, and social burden to patients, their families, and their social network. The significant pediatric morbidity and mortality rates caused by CNS diseases call for equally significant efforts toward a better understanding of the etiology and nature of these disorders. Recent studies show the involvement of microRNAs (miRNAs) in various aspects of central nervous system development and neuropsychiatric diseases. This review focuses on the role of miRNAs in different pediatric neurological conditions. We emphasize the importance of microRNA-based research in combating pediatric neurological disorders. We believe this approach will result in novel therapies to secure normal development and prevent disabilities in the pediatric population.