Abdelmalki, A., Merino, D., Bonneau, D., et al. (1997). Administration of a GABAB agonist baclofen before running to exhaustion in the rat: Effects on performance and on some indicators of fatigue. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 18
Acworth, I., Nicholass, J., Morgan, B., et al. (1986). Effect of sustained exercise on concentrations of plasma aromatic and branched-chain amino acids and brain amines. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 137
Adell, A., & Artigas, F. (2004). The somatodendritic release of dopamine in the ventral tegmental area and its regulation by afferent transmitter systems. Neuroscience and Biobehavioural Reviews, 28, 415–431.
Agharanya, J. C., & Wurtman, R. J. (1982). Studies on the mechanism by which tyrosine raises urinary catecholamines. Biochemical Pharmacology, 31
Ahlenius, S., & Hillegaart, V. (1986). Involvement of extrapyramidal motor mechanisms in the suppression of locomotor activity by antipsychotic drugs: A comparison between the effects produced by pre- and post-synaptic inhibition of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 24, 1409–1415.
Ahlenius, S., Svensson, L., Hillegaart, V., et al. (1984). Antagonism by haloperidol of the suppression of exploratory locomotor activity induced by the local application of (−)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N
-propylpiperidine into the nucleus accumbens of the rat. Experientia, 40
Altar, C. A., Boylan, C. B., Jackson, C., et al. (1992). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor augments rotational behavior and nigrostriatal dopamine turnover in vivo. Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences USA, 89, 11347–11351.
Avraham, Y., Hao, S., Mendelson, S., et al. (2001). Tyrosine improves appetite, cognition, and exercise tolerance in activity anorexia. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 33
Bailey, S. P., Davis, J. M., & Ahlborn, E. N. (1992). Effect of increased brain serotonergic activity on endurance performance in the rat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 145
Bailey, S. P., Davis, J. M., & Ahlborn, E. N. (1993a) Neuroendocrine and substrate responses to altered brain 5-HT activity during prolonged exercise to fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 74
Bailey, S. P., Davis, J. M., & Ahlborn, E. N. (1993b) Serotonergic agonists and antagonists affect endurance performance in the rat. International Journal of Sports and Medicne, 14, 330–333.
Beck, K. D., Knusel, B., & Hefti, F. (1993). The nature of the trophic action of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, des(1–3)-insulin-like growth factor-1, and basic fibroblast growth factor on mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons developing in culture. Neuroscience, 52
Belke, T. W. (1997). Running and responding reinforced by the opportunity to run: Effect of reinforcer duration. Journal of Experimental Analysis and Behaviour, 67, 337–351.
Bhagat, B., & Wheeler, N. (1973a) Effect of amphetamine on the swimming endurance of rats. Neuropharmacology, 12
Bhagat, B., & Wheeler, N. (1973b) Effect of nicotine on the swimming endurance of rats. Neuropharmacology, 12
Bliss, E. L., & Ailion, J. (1971). Relationship of stress and activity to brain dopamine and homovanillic acid. Life Science I, 10, 1161–1169 .
Blomstrand, E. (2006). A role for branched-chain amino acids in reducing central fatigue. Journal of Nutrition, 136
Blomstrand, E., Perrett, D., Parry-Billings, M., et al. (1989). Effect of sustained exercise on plasma amino acid concentrations and on 5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism in six different brain regions in the rat. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 136
Bracken, M. E., Bracken, D. R., Nelson, A. G., et al. (1988). Effect of cocaine on exercise endurance and glycogen use in rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 64
Bracken, M. E., Bracken, D. R., Winder, W. W., et al. (1989). Effect of various doses of cocaine on endurance capacity in rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 66
Burgess, M. L., Davis, J. M., Borg, T. K., et al. (1991). Intracranial self-stimulation motivates treadmill running in rats. Journal of Applied Physiology, 71
Campisi, J., Leem, T. H., Greenwood, B. N., et al. (2003). Habitual physical activity facilitates stress-induced HSP72 induction in brain, peripheral, and immune tissues. American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative Comparative Physiology, 284, R520–R530.
Chaouloff, F., Laude, D., Guezennec, Y., et al. (1986). Motor activity increases tryptophan, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, and homovanillic acid in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of the conscious rat. Journal of Neurochemistry, 46
Chaouloff, F., Laude, D., Merino, D., et al. (1987). Amphetamine and alpha-methyl-p-tyrosine affect the exercise-induced imbalance between the availability of tryptophan and synthesis of serotonin in the brain of the rat. Neuropharmacology, 26
Chaudhuri, A., & Behan, P. O. (2000). Fatigue and basal ganglia. Journal of Neurological Science, 179, 34–42.
Chen, H., Zhang, S. M., Schwarzschild, M. A., et al. (2005). Physical activity and the risk of Parkinson disease. Neurology, 64
Chinevere, T. D., Sawyer, R. D., Creer, A. R., et al. (2002). Effects of l
-tyrosine and carbohydrate ingestion on endurance exercise performance. Journal of Applied Physiology, 93
Cooter, G. R., & Stull, G. A. (1974). The effect of amphetamine on endurance in rats. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 14
Cotman, C. W., & Berchtold, N. C. (2002). Exercise: A behavioral intervention to enhance brain health and plasticity. Trends Neuroscience, 25, 295–301.
Craig, A., Tran, Y., Wijesuriya, N., et al. (2005). A controlled investigation into the psychological determinants of fatigue. Biological Psychology, 72
Crizzle, A. M., & Newhouse, I. J. (2006). Is physical exercise beneficial for persons with Parkinson’s disease? Clinical Journal of Sport Medicne, 16, 422–425.
Davis, J. M. (1995). Central and peripheral factors in fatigue. Journal of Sports Sciences, 13(Spec No), S49–S53.
Davis, J. M., Alderson, N. L., & Welsh, R. S. (2000). Serotonin and central nervous system fatigue: Nutritional considerations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72
Davis, J. M., & Bailey, S. P. (1997). Possible mechanisms of central nervous system fatigue during exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29
Davis, J. M., Zhao, Z., Stock, H. S., et al. (2003). Central nervous system effects of caffeine and adenosine on fatigue. American Journal of Physiology Regulatory, Integrative Comparative Physiology, 284, R399–R404.
Derevenco, P., Sovrea, I., Stoica, N., et al. (1978). The effects of central chemical sympathectomy on the response to exercise in rats. Physiologie, 15
Derevenco, P., Stoica, N., Sovrea, I., et al. (1986). Central and peripheral effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on exercise performance in rats. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 11
Derevenco, P., Stoica, N., & Vaida, A. (1981). Other effects of monoaminergic inhibition with 6 hydroxydopamine and of disulfiram on the response to exercise in rats. Physiologie, 18
Derevenco, P., Vaida, A., Stoica, N., et al. (1982). New data concerning the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine on the exercise performance in rats. Physiologie, 19
Dishman, R. K., Berthoud, H. R., Booth, F. W., et al. (2006). Neurobiology of exercise. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 16, 470.
Elam, M., Svensson, T. H., & Thoren, P. (1987). Brain monoamine metabolism is altered in rats following spontaneous, long-distance running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 130
Elsworth, J. D., & Roth, R. H. (1997). Dopamine synthesis, uptake, metabolism, and receptors: Relevance to gene therapy of Parkinson’s disease. Experimental Neurology, 144
Enoka, R. M., & Stuart, D. G. (1992). Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. Journal of Applied Physiology, 72
Fernstrom, J. D., & Fernstrom, M. H. (2006). Exercise, serum free tryptophan, and central fatigue. Journal of Nutrition, 136
Francois, C., Yelnik, J., Tande, D., et al. (1999). Dopaminergic cell group A8 in the monkey: Anatomical organization and projections to the striatum. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 414
Freed, C. R., & Yamamoto, B. K. (1985). Regional brain dopamine metabolism: A marker for the speed, direction, and posture of moving animals. Science, 229
Gandevia, S. C. (2001). Spinal and supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue. Physiological Review, 81, 1725–1789.
Gandevia, S. C., Allen, G. M., Butler, J. E., et al. (1996). Supraspinal factors in human muscle fatigue: Evidence for suboptimal output from the motor cortex. Journal of Physiology, 490
(Pt 2), 529–536.PubMed
Gandevia, S. C., Enoka, R. M., McComas, A. J., et al. (1995). Neurobiology of muscle fatigue. Advances and issues. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 384
Gerald, M. C. (1978). Effects of (+)-amphetamine on the treadmill endurance performance of rats. Neuropharmacology, 17
Gerin, C., Becquet, D., & Privat, A. (1995). Direct evidence for the link between monoaminergic descending pathways and motor activity. I. A study with microdialysis probes implanted in the ventral funiculus of the spinal cord. Brain Research, 704
Gerin, C., & Privat, A. (1998). Direct evidence for the link between monoaminergic descending pathways and motor activity: II. A study with microdialysis probes implanted in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Brain Research, 794
Gilliam, P. E., Spirduso, W. W., Martin, T. P., et al. (1984). The effects of exercise training on [3H]-spiperone binding in rat striatum. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 20, 863–867.
Guezennec, C. Y., Abdelmalki, A., Serrurier, B., et al. (1998). Effects of prolonged exercise on brain ammonia and amino acids. International Journal of Sports and Medicine, 19, 323–327.
Guillin, O., Diaz, J., Carroll, P., et al. (2001). BDNF controls dopamine D3 receptor expression and triggers behavioural sensitization. Nature, 411
Hasegawa, H., Yazawa, T., Yasumatsu, M., et al. (2000). Alteration in dopamine metabolism in the thermoregulatory center of exercising rats. Neuroscience Letters, 289
Hattori, S., Naoi, M., & Nishino, H. (1994). Striatal dopamine turnover during treadmill running in the rat: Relation to the speed of running. Brain Research Bulletin, 35
Heyes, M. P., Garnett, E. S., & Coates, G. (1985). Central dopaminergic activity influences rats ability to exercise. Life Science, 36, 671–677.
Heyes, M. P., Garnett, E. S., & Coates, G. (1988). Nigrostriatal dopaminergic activity is increased during exhaustive exercise stress in rats. Life Science, 42, 1537–1542.
Hillegaart, V., & Ahlenius, S. (1987). Effects of raclopride on exploratory locomotor activity, treadmill locomotion, conditioned avoidance behaviour and catalepsy in rats: Behavioural profile comparisons between raclopride, haloperidol and preclamol. Pharmacology and Toxicology, 60
Hillegaart, V., Ahlenius, S., Magnusson, O., et al. (1987). Repeated testing of rats markedly enhances the duration of effects induced by haloperidol on treadmill locomotion, catalepsy, and a conditioned avoidance response. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 27, 159–164.
Hoffmann, P., Elam, M., Thoren, P., et al. (1994). Effects of long-lasting voluntary running on the cerebral levels of dopamine, serotonin and their metabolites in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Life Science, 54, 855–861.
Horger, B. A., Iyasere, C. A., Berhow, M. T., et al. (1999). Enhancement of locomotor activity and conditioned reward to cocaine by brain-derived neurotrophic factor. Journal of Neuroscience, 19
Howells, F. M., Russell, V. A., Mabandla, M. V., et al. (2005). Stress reduces the neuroprotective effect of exercise in a rat model for Parkinson’s disease. Behavourial Brain Research, 165, 210–220.
Hyman, C., Hofer, M., Barde, Y. A., et al. (1991). BDNF is a neurotrophic factor for dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra. Nature, 350
Iversen, I. H. (1993). Techniques for establishing schedules with wheel running as reinforcement in rats. Journal of Experimental Analysis and Behaviour, 60, 219–238.
Jacobs, B. L. (1991). Serotonin and behavior: Emphasis on motor control. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 52
Jacobs, B. L., & Fornal, C. A. (1999). Activity of serotonergic neurons in behaving animals. Neuropsychopharmacology, 21
Jacobs, I., & Bell, D. G. (2004). Effects of acute modafinil ingestion on exercise time to exhaustion. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36
Kalinski, M. I., Dluzen, D. E., & Stadulis, R. (2001). Methamphetamine produces subsequent reductions in running time to exhaustion in mice. Brain Research, 921
Kalmar, J. M., & Cafarelli, E. (2004). Caffeine: A valuable tool to study central fatigue in humans? Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, 32
Lacerda, A. C., Marubayashi, U., Balthazar, C. H., et al. (2006). Evidence that brain nitric oxide inhibition increases metabolic cost of exercise, reducing running performance in rats. Neuroscience Letters, 393
Le Moine, C., Normand, E., & Bloch, B. (1991). Phenotypical characterization of the rat striatal neurons expressing the D1 dopamine receptor gene. Proceedings of National Academy Sciences USA, 88, 4205–4209.
Lett, B. T., Grant, V. L., Byrne, M. J., et al. (2000). Pairings of a distinctive chamber with the aftereffect of wheel running produce conditioned place preference. Appetite, 34
Lim, B. V., Jang, M. H., Shin, M. C., et al. (2001). Caffeine inhibits exercise-induced increase in tryptophan hydroxylase expression in dorsal and median raphe of Sprague-Dawley rats. Neuroscience Letters, 308
Liste, I., Guerra, M. J., Caruncho, H. J., et al. (1997). Treadmill running induces striatal Fos expression via, N. M.DA glutamate and dopamine receptors. Experimental Brain Research, 115, 458–468.
Lu, X. Y., Ghasemzadeh, M. B., & Kalivas, P. W. (1998). Expression of D1 receptor, D2 receptor, substance P and enkephalin messenger RNAs in the neurons projecting from the nucleus accumbens. Neuroscience, 82
MacRae, P. G., Spirduso, W. W., Cartee, G. D., et al. (1987). Endurance training effects on striatal D2 dopamine receptor binding and striatal dopamine metabolite levels. Neuroscience Letters, 79
Marshall, J. F., & Berrios, N. (1979). Movement disorders of aged rats: Reversal by dopamine receptor stimulation. Science, 206
Martin-Iverson, M. T., Todd, K. G., & Altar, C. A. (1994). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 activate striatal dopamine and serotonin metabolism and related behaviors: Interactions with amphetamine. Journal of Neuroscience, 14
McTavish, S. F., Cowen, P. J., & Sharp, T. (1999). Effect of a tyrosine-free amino acid mixture on regional brain catecholamine synthesis and release. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 141, 182–188.
Meeusen, R., Piacentini, M. F., & De Meirleir, K. (2001). Brain microdialysis in exercise research. Sports Medicine, 31
Meeusen, R., Roeykens, J., Magnus, L., et al. (1997a) Endurance performance in humans: The effect of a dopamine precursor or a specific serotonin (5-HT2A/2C) antagonist. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 18
Meeusen, R., Smolders, I., Sarre, S., et al. (1997b) Endurance training effects on neurotransmitter release in rat striatum: An in vivo microdialysis study. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 159
Meeusen, R., Watson, P., & Dvorak, J. (2006a) The brain and fatigue: New opportunities for nutritional interventions? Journal of Sports and Sciences, 24, 773–782.
Meeusen, R., Watson, P., Hasegawa, H., et al. (2006b) Central fatigue: The serotonin hypothesis and beyond. Sports and Medicine, 36, 881–909.
Milner, J. D., & Wurtman, R. J. (1987). Tyrosine availability: A presynaptic factor controlling catecholamine release. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 221
Newsholme, E. A., Acworth, I. N., & Blomstrand, E. (1987). Amino acids, brain neurotransmitters and a functional link between muscle and brain that is important in sustained exercise (pp. 127–133). London, UK: John Libbey Eurotext Ltd.
Newsholme, E. A., & Blomstrand, E. (2006). Branched-chain amino acids and central fatigue. Journal of Nutrition, 136
Nielsen, B., & Nybo, L. (2003). Cerebral changes during exercise in the heat. Sports and Medicne, 33, 1–11.
Nybo, L., Dalsgaard, M. K., Steensberg, A., et al. (2005). Cerebral ammonia uptake and accumulation during prolonged exercise in humans. Journal of Physiology, 563
Nybo, L., & Rasmussen, P. (2007). Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise. Exercise and Sport Science Review, 35, 110–118.
Nybo, L., & Secher, N. H. (2004). Cerebral perturbations provoked by prolonged exercise. Progress in Neurobiology, 72
Oldendorf, W. H., & Szabo, J. (1976). Amino acid assignment to one of three blood-brain barrier amino acid carriers. American Journal of Physiology, 230
Pardridge, W. M. (1977). Kinetics of competitive inhibition of neutral amino acid transport across the blood-brain barrier. Journal of Neurochemistry, 28
Paxinos, G., Watson, C. (1998). The rat brain in stereotaxic coordinates. CA: Academic Press.
Petzinger, G. M., Walsh, J. P., Akopian, G., et al. (2007). Effects of treadmill exercise on dopaminergic transmission in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-lesioned mouse model of basal ganglia injury. Journal of Neuroscience, 27
Rietjens, G. J., Kuipers, H., Adam, J. J., et al. (2005). Physiological biochemical and psychological markers of strenuous training-induced fatigue. International Journal of Sports and Medicine, 26, 16–26.
Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: An incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Brain Research Reviews, 18
Robinson, T. E., & Berridge, K. C. (2000). The psychology and neurobiology of addiction: An incentive-sensitization view. Addiction, 95
(Suppl 2), S91–S117.PubMed
Rojas Vega, S., Struder, H. K., Vera Wahrmann, B., et al. (2006). Acute BDNF and cortisol response to low intensity exercise and following ramp incremental exercise to exhaustion in humans. Brain Research, 1121
Russo-Neustadt, A. A., & Chen, M. J. (2005). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and antidepressant activity. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 11
Sabol, K. E., Richards, J. B., & Freed, C. R. (1990). In vivo dialysis measurements of dopamine and DOPAC in rats trained to turn on a circular treadmill. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behaviour, 36, 21–28.
Snider, R. M., Ordway, G. A., & Gerald, M. C. (1983). Effects of methylphenidate on rat endurance performance and neuromuscular transmission in vitro. Neuropharmacology, 22
Speciale, S. G., Miller, J. D., McMillen, B. A., et al. (1986). Activation of specific central dopamine pathways: Locomotion and footshock. Brain Research Bulletin, 16
Spina, M. B., Squinto, S. P., Miller, J., et al. (1992). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor protects dopamine neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine and N
-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium ion toxicity: Involvement of the glutathione system. Journal of Neurochemistry, 59
Stokes, M. J., Cooper, R. G., & Edwards, R. H. (1988). Normal muscle strength and fatigability in patients with effort syndromes. BMJ, 297
Struder, H. K., Hollmann, W., Platen, P., et al. (1998). Influence of paroxetine, branched-chain amino acids and tyrosine on neuroendocrine system responses and fatigue in humans. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 30
Struder, H. K., & Weicker, H. (2001a) Physiology and pathophysiology of the serotonergic system and its implications on mental and physical performance. Part I. International Journal of Sports and Medicine, 22, 467–481.
Struder, H. K., & Weicker, H. (2001b) Physiology and pathophysiology of the serotonergic system and its implications on mental and physical performance. Part II. International Journal of Sports and Medicine, 22, 482–497.
Sutton, E. E., Coill, M. R., & Deuster, P. A. (2005). Ingestion of tyrosine: Effects on endurance, muscle strength, and anaerobic performance. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 15
Tillerson, J. L., Caudle, W. M., Reveron, M. E., et al. (2003). Exercise induces behavioral recovery and attenuates neurochemical deficits in rodent models of Parkinson’s disease. Neuroscience, 119
Todd, G., Butler, J. E., Taylor, J. L., et al. (2005). Hyperthermia: A failure of the motor cortex and the muscle. Journal of Physiology, 563
Trudeau, F., Peronnet, F., Beliveau, L., et al. (1990). 6-OHDA sympathectomy andexercise performance in the rat. Archives Internationales de Physiologie et de Biochimie, 98
Tumer, N., Demirel, H. A., Serova, L., et al. (2001). Geneexpression of catecholamine biosynthetic enzymes following exercise: Modulation by age. Neuroscience, 103
Van Hoomissen, J. D., Chambliss, H. O., Holmes, P. V., et al. (2003). Effects of chronic exercise and imipramine on mRNA for BDNF after olfactory bulbectomy in rat. Brain Research, 974
Vaynman, S., & Gomez-Pinilla, F. (2005). License to run: Exercise impacts functional plasticity in the intact and injured central nervous system by using neurotrophins. Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair, 19
Wang, G. J., Volkow, N. D., Fowler, J. S., et al. (2000). PET studies of the effects of aerobic exercise on human striatal dopamine release. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 41
Werme, M., Messer, C., Olson, L., et al. (2002). Delta FosB regulates wheel running. Journal of Neuroscience, 22
Williams, M. H., & Thompson, J. (1973). Effect of variant dosages of amphetamine upon endurance. Research Quarterly, 44
Wilson, W. M., & Marsden, C. A. (1995). Extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens of the rat during treadmill running. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 155
Yee, R. E., Cheng, D. W., Huang, S. C., et al. (2001). Blood-brain barrier and neuronal membrane transport of 6-[18F]fluoro-l
-DOPA. Biochemical Pharmacology, 62