A Cellular Viewpoint of Anti-FVIII Immune Response in Hemophilia A
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- André, S., Meslier, Y., Dimitrov, J.D. et al. Clinic Rev Allerg Immunol (2009) 37: 105. doi:10.1007/s12016-009-8117-2
A large proportion of hemophilia A patients who receive replacement therapy, develop an immune response toward the infused factor VIII (FVIII). In this review, we discuss recent progress in several aspects of the anti-FVIII immune response, focusing on the sites of FVIII endocytosis (marginal zone of the spleen and bleeding site), the type of antigen-presenting cells (dendritic cells, macrophages and B cells) and endocytic receptors, implicated in FVIII presentation to T cells during primary and secondary immune response. Although it is becoming increasingly clear that regulatory T cells are involved in FVIII tolerance in healthy subjects and potentially in patients without inhibitors, we would like to demonstrate that little is known about the different T cells subsets and the cytokines network, which are also crucial for the development of allo- and autoimmune diseases. As more information on these issues becomes available, a better understanding of the role of each immune cells compartment in promoting FVIII tolerance or inhibitors development might lead to new strategies to promote FVIII tolerance in hemophilia A patients.