, Volume 7, Issue 2, pp 425-433
Date: 01 Sep 2010

Cord Blood Stem Cells for Hematopoietic Transplantation

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Cord blood (CB) is an important alternative source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for transplantation today. The principal drawbacks of cord blood transplantation are the limited number of hematopoietic stem cells and a long time to engraftment. Several promising approaches for engraftment enhancement are under intensive investigation. Such are transplantation with two cord blood units, co transplantation of cord blood and haploidentical HSCs and different methods for expansion of cord blood hematopoietic stem cells. In addition there are several ways for improving of homing of HSCs such as co- infusion of CB hematopoietic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH), intra- bone transplantation and targeting the CXCR4/SDF1 system. These strategies are expected to increase the availability of transplantation to adults, for whom the chance to find a cord blood suitable for a single unit transplant is small. Recent advances in elucidation of the molecular mechanisms responsible for the proliferation and self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells may bring further improvement of the outcomes of cord blood transplantation. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field of cord blood derived hematopoietic stem cells. It presents the strategies applied and points out directions for the future.