Growth and Differentiation Properties of Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Populations Derived from Whole Human Umbilical Cord
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- Majore, I., Moretti, P., Stahl, F. et al. Stem Cell Rev and Rep (2011) 7: 17. doi:10.1007/s12015-010-9165-y
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Up to 2.8 × 107 fibroblast-like cells displaying an abundant presence of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers CD73, CD90, CD105 and a low level of HLA-I expression can be isolated from one whole human umbilical cord (UC) using a simple and highly reproducible explant culture approach. Cells derived from whole UC, similar to cells collected from separate compartments of UC, display a distinct chondrogenic and adipogenic potential. Therefore they are potential candidates for cartilage and adipose tissue engineering. Cell differentiation along the osteogenic pathway is, however, less efficient, even after the addition of 1.25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a potent osteoinductive substance. Isolated cells are highly proliferative, tolerate cryopreservation with an average survival rate of about 75% and after thawing can be propagated further, at least over 20 population doublings before their proliferative activity begins to decline. More importantly, they synthesize numerous trophic factors including neurotrophins and factors which facilitate angiogenesis and hematopoiesis. In conclusion, cells isolated from whole UC satisfies all requirements essential for the generation of stem cell banks containing permanently available cell material for applications in the field of regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to improve and adjust the methods which are already employed for adult MSC expansion and differentiation to specific properties and requirements of the primitive stem cells collected from UC. So, our data verify that the choice of individual parameters for cell propagation, such as duration of cell expansion and cell seeding density, has a substantial impact on the quality of UC-derived cell populations.